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  I tend to approach discussions of the philosophical implications of quantum 
mechanics with a degree of caution for reasons that should be apparent in one 
my old posts, which can be found below. Jim 
Learn or Review Basic Math--------------------------------------------------  
Probably at least a few people here have heard of Boris Hessen,- the Soviet 
physicist and historian and philosopher of science, whose groundbreaking paper, 
"The Social and Economic Roots of Newton’s Principia"
(https://rtraba.files.wordpress.com/2015/06/v1_hessen.pdf) would have a 
profound impact on the emergence of the history of science as a distinct 
discipline in the West, following that paper's delivery by Hessen at the Second 
International Congress of the History of Science in London, as part of a 
delegation of Soviet scholars and scientists that included Nikolai Bukharin. 
While many people were influenced by Hessen's paper, it made a strong impact on 
at least several young British scientists, including J.D. Bernal, J.B.S. 
Haldane, Lancelot, Hogben, and Joseph Needham,all of whom achieved eminence in 
their respective scientific specialties while also becoming very influential 
writers concerning the history and social functions of science, from a Marxist 
perspective. A while back, I read Loren R. Graham's book, *Science in Russia 
and the Soviet Union: A Short History*. He has a discussion of Hessen and his 
groundbreaking paper on Newton. What is interesting about Graham's discussion of
  Hessen, is that he sees Hessen's work on Newton as having been motivated in 
large degree by his concern with defending modern physics - Einstein's theory 
of relativity and quantum mechanics, as developed by de Broglie, Heisenberg, 
Schroedinger, and Bohr, from the sustained ideological attacks that these 
theories were enduring in the Soviet Union at that time. Both relativity and 
quantum mechanics were being denounced as "idealist" and "bourgeois." 
Furthermore, the writings of Einstein, Heisenberg, and Bohr along with such 
people as James Jeans and Arthur Eddington were widely cited by Soviet 
ideologists in support of their attacks on these two theories as being 
idealist, since some of these scientists, especially Eddington were in fact 
quite insistent that the new physics lent support to an idealist metaphysical 
worldview. In addition the fact that Einstein explicitly acknowledged drawing 
upon the ideas of Ernst Mach was cited against relativity, since Lenin after 
all, had in his b
 ook, *Materialism and Empirio-Criticism*, ma!
 de the philosophies of Mach and Avernarius the chief targets of criticism. 
Most of the Soviet opponents of modern physics championed Newtonian physics as 
the physics that was most consistent with Marxism and dialectical materialism. 
Graham reads Hessen as attempting to undercut Soviet criticism of modern 
physics by attempting to show that Newtonian physics was vulnerable to the same 
sorts of criticism. Newton himself was the proponent of a highly theological 
view of the universe. He saw his science as lending support to theism and 
Christianity. Furthermore, Newton's work was very much tied to the class 
interests of the rising English bourgeoisie. Yet, despite all this, his science 
was of genuine and permanent value. Graham takes Hessen as attempting to 
present a similar case on behalf of relativity and quantum mechanics. Though 
both theories could and were often given idealist metaphysical interpretations, 
such interpretations were not the only ones possible. Both theories could als
 o be given materialist philosophical interpretations too, just as was the case 
with Newtonian physics. Newton himself and many of his disciples were quite 
pious and they presented theological interpretations of their science, but 
materialist interpretations of Newtonian physics were possible and those indeed 
were the ones that were accepted in the Soviet Union. But if Newtonian physics 
could now interpreted in materialist terms, despite the intention of its 
founders who were decidedly not materialists, then the same sort of thing could 
happen to relativity and quantum mechanics. The founders of these theories 
might not have been materialists, but there was nothing to prevent us from 
giving these theories materialist interpretations. Now, I find this view of 
scientific theories and the philosophical interpretations to which they may be 
given quite similar to the view that the logical empiricist Philipp Frank gave 
in his writings such as *Modern Science and Its Philosophy*, and *Philo
 sophy of Science: The Link between Philosophy and Sci!
 ence*. There, Frank argued for the importance between distinguishing between 
the specifically scientific content of theories like Newton's mechanics, 
Einstein's theory of relativity and quantum mechanics and the various assorted 
metaphysical interpretations that can be provided for any of these theories. In 
discussing the metaphysical interpretations, Frank emphasized the extent to 
which such interpretations can support various social and political agenda. He 
pointed out how the popular mystical interpretations that have been given for 
quantum mechanics tend to support reactionary political agenda. He also made 
mention of the Soviet debates over philosophical interpretations of relativity 
and quantum mechanics. Given that Frank seems to have pretty well informed 
about developments in Soviet philosophy, I would be very much surprised if own 
approach to the treatment of metaphysical interpretations of science wasn't 
influenced by Boris Hessen's work.

---------- Original Message ----------
From: Louis Proyect via Marxism <marxism@lists.csbs.utah.edu>
Subject: [Marxism] Fwd: Materialism alone cannot explain the riddle of 
consciousness | Aeon Essays
Date: Tue, 14 Mar 2017 09:52:17 -0400

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