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>Date: Mon, 10 Dec 2001 23:56:57 +0000 (GMT)
>Subject: [globenet] Blossoming Technologies of Political Control (Earth
Island Journal, v.16, n.4)
>The Globalization of Repression: A Special Report to
>the European Parliament
>Censored Stories: 'The Technologies of Political
>The following is an edited version of a 112-page
>"Special Report to the European Parliament" prepared
>by the Omega Foundation for the European Parliament's
>department of Scientific and Technological Options
>Assessment (STOA). While this report and its
>subsequent updates are widely known throughout Europe,
>it has never appeared in the US media. The full report
>is available from STOA, Luxembourg, +352-4300-22511,
>fax: -22418,
>Luxembourg (January 6, 1998) - Nearly 30 years ago,
>the British Society for Social Responsibility in
>Science (BSSRS) warned that a new technology of
>repression was being spawned in an effort to contain
>civil unrest. In 1977, BSSRS published The Technology
>of Political Control which analyzed the function of
>these new technologies. Largely created as a result of
>research and development undertaken as part of
>Britain's colonial wars, work on this technology was
>further enhanced by technical developments achieved by
>the US' military-industrial complex.
>The BSSRS was the first report to identify a whole
>class of technology whose principal function was to
>achieve social and political control. "This new
>weaponry ranges from means of monitoring internal
>dissent to devices for controlling demonstrations;
>from new techniques of interrogation to methods of
>prisoner control," BSSRS reported.
>The Technology of Political Control predicted that,
>with the deployment of these technologies, governments
>would no longer reach for the machine gun when
>threatened at home. They would have plastic bullets
>that kill only occasionally, interrogation that
>tortures without leaving physical scars, electronics
>for telephone taping and night surveillance, and
>computers to build files on dissidents.
>A massive Police Industrial Complex has been spawned
>to serve the needs of police, paramilitary and
>security forces. An overall trend is towards the
>globalization of these technologies.
>Many major arms companies have established
>paramilitary/internal security operations and
>diversification into these markets is increasing.
>Weapons specifically designed to quell dissent are
>incredibly cheap compared to major warfare
>counterparts like ships, aircraft and tanks. The move
>into a post-Cold War world has been accompanied by a
>change in the nature of warfare.
>The militarization of the police often begins via
>"special weapons and tactics squads," such as the
>Grenz Schutz Gruppe in Germany, the Gendarmerie
>Nationale in France, the Carabinieri in Italy, the
>Special Patrol Group in the UK or the federal police
>paramilitary SWAT teams in the US (FBI, DEA and Bureau
>of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms). Security companies
>now produce weapons and communications systems for
>both the military and the police. 
>The Evolution of Repression
>The 1972 US National Science Foundation's Report on
>Non-lethal Weapons listed 34 different weapons
>including: chemical and kinetic weapons; electrified
>water jets; combined stroboscopic light and pulsed
>sound weapons; infrasound weapons; guns that fire
>drug-filled, flight-stabilized syringes; stench darts
>that give off an obnoxious odor; the Taser, which
>shoots 50,000 volts into the target; and "instant
>banana peel," which makes roads slippery and
>Many of these weapons have since achieved operational
>status. They include: electronic riot shields and
>electro-shock batons; bulk chemical irritant
>distributor systems (delivered by British water cannon
>or Israeli backpack sprayers); plastic bullet guns;
>hydraulically fired, slingshot rubber-bullet machines;
>and biomedical weapons, such as the
>compressed-air-fired drug syringe now commercially
>available both in the US and China.
>Some 856 companies across 47 countries have been or
>are currently active in the manufacture and supply of
>such weapons. This global proliferation has been
>fueled by private companies wishing to tap lucrative
>security markets.
>Portable electrified riot shields (manufactured since
>the mid-1980s) comprise a transparent polycarbonate
>plate through which metal strips are interlaced. A
>button-activated induction coil in the handle sends
>40,000 to 100,000 volts arcing across the metal
>strips, accompanied by intermittent indigo flashing
>sparks and an intimidating crackle as the air between
>the electrodes is ionized. Deaths have been reported
>from both Tasers and from shock shields.
>A wire barrier system dispersed by the Volcano Mine
>System shoots out a thin wire with something like fish
>hooks along it in enough mass to cover a soccer-field
>sized area. "It's intended to snag. It's not going to
>kill you," said Volcano marketing manager Tom Bierman.
>Human guards are being replaced with sophisticated
>punishment mechanisms that vary from electroshock to
>kill-fences and fragmentation mines. Neural networks
>with semi-intelligence will play an increasing role in
>sentinel duties as robot technology improves. Already
>prototypes known as "insectoids" are being evolved to
>cheaply replace personnel on routine guard duties.
>They can be programmed to track a fence and carry
>either lethal or sub-lethal weapons. 
>"Proactive Policing"
>The fastest-growing trend in surveillance technology
>is towards tracking certain social classes and races
>living in red-lined areas before any crime is
>committed. Such "proactive policing" is based on
>military models of gathering huge amounts of low-grade
>intelligence. With systems such as Memex, it is
>possible to quickly build up a comprehensive picture
>of virtually anyone by gaining electronic access to
>all their records, cash transactions, cars held, etc. 
>Any unique attribute of anatomy can be used to create
>a human identity recognition system. Cellmark
>Diagnostics (UK) can recognize genes; Mastiff Security
>Systems (UK) can recognize odor; Hagen Cy-Com (UK) and
>Eyedentify Inc. (USA) can recognize the pattern of
>capillaries at the back of the retina; while AFA
>Technology (UK) is capable of signature verification. 
>DNA fingerprinting is now a reality. Britain has set
>up its first DNA databank and has carried out mass
>dawn raids of targeted suspects. Plans are being drawn
>up by at least one political party to DNA-profile
>[British citizens] from birth. Face recognition
>systems are seen as being able to revolutionize crime,
>customs and intruder detection.
>Night-vision technology developed as a result of the
>Vietnam war has now been adapted for police usage.
>Heli-tele surveillance [from helicopters] allows
>cameras to track human heat signatures in total
>darkness. Lorraine Electronics' Direct Intelligent
>Access Listening (DIAL) allows an operator to monitor
>several rooms from anywhere in the world. 
>Neural network bugs go one step further. Built like a
>small cockroach, they can crawl to the best location
>for surveillance. Japanese researchers have managed to
>control real cockroaches by implanting microprocessors
>and electrodes in their bodies. The insects can be
>fitted with micro cameras and sensors to reach places
>other "bugs" can't.
>'Less-lethal' Weapons
>The essential role of new crowd-control weapons and
>tactics is to amplify the level of aggression that can
>be unleashed by an individual officer. Much of a
>weapon's effect lies in creating a sense of
>uncertainty. Even the insectoid appearance of riot
>squad members is part of the threat impact. Thus the
>rationale behind the new US side-handle batons, riot
>shield charges, riot wedges, "snatch squads" and the
>martial arts-style arrest techniques. 
>The biggest growth area however, has been in what used
>to be called "non-lethal weapons." The fact that some
>of these weapons kill, blind, scalp and permanently
>maim led the authorities and manufacturers to come up
>with a new name - "less-lethal weapons" - i.e. they
>only sometimes kill. 
>Police forces have acquired many of the weapons
>normally associated with the military. Many shotguns
>specially adapted for police use (e.g., by Ithaca,
>Mossberg, Remington, Sage International and Wilson
>Arms) are literally sawn-off shotguns whose wider
>spread increases the number of likely targets. 
>Specialist shotgun ammunition enables some of these
>weapons to smash the cylinder block off a car or
>literally cut a human in half. An advertisement for
>the shotgun "bolo round," claims "It slices - it
>dices." Shotgun ammunition leaves no evidence of what
>weapon was used to fire it because they do not leave a
>"spent cartridge signature."
>In urban settings, a high-velocity round could easily
>pass through an intended target and continue
>penetrating walls and go on to kill innocents beyond
>the observed fire zone. To obviate this problem,
>manufacturers are increasingly producing hollow point,
>expanding, or "dum-dum" ammunition for police use. 
>Whereas ordinary ammunition can sail through the body
>leaving a relatively clean hole, soft-nosed ammunition
>"mushrooms" in the body, causing far more serious
>damage. Dum-dums can take an arm or a leg off. Some
>these weapons, like Winchester's Black Talon or the
>high-explosive filled, Frag 12 cause horrific
>Paradoxically, the Hague Declaration of 1989, which
>prohibited the use of hollow point ammunition in war,
>does not apply to the policing of civil conflicts. 
>Surveillance Technologies
>Until the 1960s, most surveillance was low-tech and
>expensive since it involved following suspects around
>from place to place. Even electronic surveillance was
>highly labor intensive. The East German police, for
>example, employed 500,000 secret informers, 10,000 of
>which were needed just to listen and transcribe
>citizens' phone calls.
>At the end of the Cold War, defense and intelligence
>agencies refocused missions to justify their budgets,
>transferring their technologies to certain law
>enforcement applications such as anti-drug and
>anti-terror operations. In 1993, the US Department of
>Defense and the Justice Department signed a memoranda
>of understanding for "Operations Other Than War" to
>facilitate joint development and sharing of
>"Fingerprints, ID cards, data-matching and other
>privacy-invasive schemes were originally tried on
>populations with little political power, such as
>welfare recipients, immigrants, criminals and members
>of the military, and then applied up the socioeconomic
>ladder," says David Banisar of Privacy International.
>"Once in place, the policies are difficult to remove."
>Ultimately, he notes, "They facilitate mass and
>routine surveillance of large segments of the
>population without the need for warrants and formal
>investigations. What the East German secret police
>could only dream of is rapidly becoming a reality in
>the 'Free World.'"
>Much of this technology is used to track the
>activities of dissidents, human rights activists,
>journalists, student leaders, minorities, trade union
>leaders and political opponents.
>A huge range of surveillance technologies has evolved,
>including night-vision goggles; parabolic microphones
>to detect conversations over a kilometer away; laser
>microphones that can pick up any conversation from a
>closed window in line of sight; stroboscopic cameras
>that can take hundreds of pictures in a matter of
>seconds and individually photograph all the
>participants in a demonstration or march. 
>The Scoot surveillance system - with US-made Pelco
>cameras - was sold to China as an advanced traffic
>control system by Siemens Plessey. The system was used
>to faithfully record the protests that lead to the
>1989 massacre in Tienanmen Square. These images were
>repeatedly broadcast over Chinese television, with the
>result that nearly all the transgressors were
>Passive Millimeter Wave Imaging developed by the US
>Millitech Corp. can scan people from up to 12 feet
>away and see through clothing to detect concealed
>weapons, packages and other contraband. Variations of
>this through-clothing screening under development by
>Raytheon Co., include systems that illuminate an
>individual with a low-intensity electromagnetic pulse.
>The Tadiran computer supplied to Guate-mala and
>installed in the national palace contained "an archive
>and a computer file on journalists, students, leaders,
>people on the left, politicians" that was used to
>select assassination victims. Europe's Harlequin
>system allows the automatic production of maps of who
>phoned whom to show "friendship networks."
>The independent Commission for the Control of Security
>Interceptions, said that 100,000 telephone lines are
>illegally tapped each year in France and that state
>agencies may be behind much of the eavesdropping. 
>However, planting illegal bugs is yesterday's
>technology. Modern snoopers can buy specially adapted
>laptop computers and simply tune in to all the mobile
>phones active in the area by cursoring down to their
>The UK-based research publication Statewatch reported
>that the EU had secretly agreed to set up an
>international telephone tapping network via a secret
>network established under the "third pillar" of the
>Maastricht Treaty. Official reports say that the EU
>governments agreed to cooperate closely with the FBI
>in Washington. Earlier minutes of these meetings
>suggest that the original initiative came from
>According to Statewatch, network and service providers
>in the EU will be obliged to install "tapable" systems
>and to place under surveillance any person or group
>when served with an interception order. These plans
>have never been referred to any European government
>for scrutiny, despite the clear civil liberties issues
>raised by such a system.
>The revolution in urban surveillance will reach the
>next generation of control once reliable face
>recognition comes in. It will initially be introduced
>at stationary locations, like turnstiles, customs
>points, security gateways, etc., to enable a standard
>full-face recognition.
>It is important to set clear guidelines and codes of
>practice for such innovations.
>'Harmless' Weapons?
>Plastic and rubber bullets were products of British
>colonial experience in Hong Kong where the flying
>wooden teak baton round became the template for future
>kinetic weapons. However, the concept of a flying
>truncheon was regarded as too dangerous for use on
>white people, so in 1969, British researchers came up
>with a "safer" version for use in Northern Ireland. 
>Plastic bullets were considered too dangerous for use
>in mainland Britain (until 1985 when they proliferated
>throughout the UK's police forces). Now plastic
>bullets have been deployed from the US to Argentina,
>from South Africa to Israel and China.
>Statements made by military scientists and police
>chiefs about "non-lethal" weapons and "minimum force,"
>have led the public to believe that crowd-control
>weapons were designed for humanitarian reasons. Such
>sentiments have been echoed by the governments,
>laboratories and manufacturers creating these
>technologies of political control.
>A 1972 report by Belfast surgeons makes for stark
>reading. It informs us that of 90 patients who sought
>hospital treatment after being hit by rubber bullets,
>41 needed hospitalization. Their injuries included
>three fractured skulls, 32 fractures of the nose, jaw,
>cheek, etc., eight ruptured eye globes (all resulting
>in blindness), three cases of severe brain damage,
>seven cases of lung injury and one case of damage to
>liver, spleen and intestine. 
>The overall role call: one death, two people blinded
>in both eyes, five with severe loss of vision in one
>eye and four with severe disfigurement of the face. 
>In the 1970s, military researchers in the US concluded
>that rubber bullets had an extremely high probability
>of undesirable effects. Plastic bullets totally
>replaced rubber bullets in Northern Ireland by 1975.
>But according to a 1983 report in the Lancet, plastic
>bullets are even more deadly than the rubber bullets
>they replaced. They cause more severe injuries to the
>skull and brain and therefore more deaths. 
>The indiscriminate deployment of plastic bullets
>removes people's rights of assembly and may remove
>their rights to freedom of movement and, in some
>situations, their right to life. We recommend that the
>European Parliament reaffirm their call for a total
>ban on this weapon.
>More than 300 companies are currently manufacturing
>and marketing chemical incapacitants to military,
>security, prison and police forces around the world.
>In high doses they can kill. Even in lower doses,
>there is a range of unpleasant side effects including
>bronchitis, asthma, lung and eye damage, contact
>dermatitis and prolonged diarrhea.
>Less-lethal weapons are presented as more acceptable
>alternatives to guns. But these weapons augment rather
>than replace the more lethal weapons. Euphemistic
>labels are used to create the impression that these
>weapons represent soft and gentle forms of control. CS
>is never referred to by the authorities as vomit gas,
>in spite of its capacity to cause violent retching.
>There is evidence that CS can cause permanent lung
>damage at comparatively low doses, as well as
>second-degree burns with blistering. In situations
>where high exposure to CS has occurred, heart failure,
>hepatocellular damage and death have been reported. 
>Oleoresin Capsicum (OC or "pepper gas") is a new
>irritant based on extracts from chili pepper. It is
>banned for use in war by the 1972 Biological Weapons
>convention. But it was not banned for internal
>security use. It was US companies that transformed
>this irritant into a commercial product that is now
>widely used by police, corrections departments and
>private citizens.
>The effects of pepper gas include blindness that lasts
>from 15-30 minutes, a burning sensation of the skin
>that lasts from 45 to 60 minutes, upper body spasms
>that force a person to bend forward and uncontrollable
>coughing, making it difficult to breathe or speak for
>between 3 to 15 minutes.
>The US Army concluded in a 1993 Aberdeen Proving
>Ground study that pepper spray could cause "mutagenic
>effects, carcinogenic effects, sensitization,
>cardiovascular and pulmonary toxicity, neurotoxicity,
>as well as possible human fatalities." Pepper spray
>got the go-ahead despite these reservations after the
>FBI gave its approval. It was subsequently revealed
>that the head of the FBI's Less-Than-Lethal Weapons
>Program, Special Agent Thomas W. Ward, took a $57,000
>bribe from a pepper gas manufacturer to give its
>product (Capstun) the all-clear.
>Weapons of the Near-Future
>In the 1990s, the revolution in so-called "non-lethal
>weapons" was given fresh impetus. The new policy was
>avidly pushed in the US by the likes of Col. John
>Alexander, who made his name as part of the Operation
>Phoenix assassination program during the Vietnam war.
>This second generation of kinetic, chemical,
>optico-acoustic, microwave, disabling and paralyzing
>technologies is on the horizon.
>Much of the initial new work has been undertaken in US
>nuclear laboratories such as Oak Ridge, Lawrence
>Livermore and Los Alamos. The Pandora's box of new
>technologies includes:
>Ultra-sound generators that disturb the inner ear
>system that controls balance, inducing nausea,
>disorientation, vomiting and involuntary defecation.
>The system, which uses two speakers, can target
>individuals in a crowd.
>High-intensity strobes that pulse in the critical
>epileptic fit-inducing frequency.
>Illusion techniques that use holograms to project
>"active camouflage."
>Disabling, sleep-inducing agents mixed with DMSO [a
>skin-penetrating chemical that quickly delivers drugs
>into the bloodstream].
>Pain-causing, paralyzing and foul-smelling area-denial
>chemicals, some of which are chemically engineered
>variants of the heroin molecule. They work extremely
>rapidly: one touch and disablement follows. 
>Microwave and acoustic disabling systems. 
>Human capture nets that can be laced with chemical
>irritant or electrified to pack a disabling punch. 
>Guns that shoot a sticky foam that expands to between
>35-50 times its original volume, gluing a target's
>feet and hands to the pavement. 
>Blinding laser weapons.
>Isotrophic radiator shells that use superheated
>gaseous plasma to produce a dazzling burst of
>laser-like light. 
>Thermal guns that incapacitate through a wall by
>raising body temperature to 107 degrees.
>Magnetosphere guns that deliver what feels like a blow
>to the head.
>According to the New Scientist, the American
>Technology Corp. of Poway, California has used
>"acoustical heterodyning technology" to target
>individuals in a crowd with infra-sound. This
>technology makes it possible to conjure audio messages
>out of thin air and to pinpoint them so that just one
>person hears them.
>The US National Institute of Justice is actively
>soliciting ideas for such weapons from corporate
>bodies. While there are practical problems regarding
>whether it is preferable to leave an enemy or a
>citizen dead rather than permanently maimed (and
>whether hallucinogenic and psychotropic agents fall
>foul of the Chemical Weapons Convention), the spending
>call was for $15 million annually over the next three
>The work done so far has led to dubious weapons based
>on dubious research, strongly influenced by commercial
>rather than humanitarian considerations. There is a
>pressing need for a wide-ranging debate of the
>humanitarian and civil liberties implications of
>allowing these weapons.
>An arsenal of new weapons and technologies of
>political control has already been developed or lies
>waiting on the horizon for a suitable opportunity to
>find useful work.
>As the globalization of political control technologies
>increases, Members of the European Parliament have a
>responsibility to challenge the costs, as well as the
>alleged benefits, of so-called "advances" in law
>Set Weapon to 'Stun'
>HSV Technologies Inc. is working to perfect a "stun
>gun" that uses a beam of UV radiation to "freeze"
>human targets at a distance of 330 feet (100 meters).
>The UV beam provides a wireless path capable of
>sending a 100-Hertz electric charge through the air
>toward a target. The 25 milliamp charge is sufficient
>to "tetanize" the target - causing the body's control
>muscles to contract, paralyzing the individual.
>Although portrayed as a "non-lethal" technology, such
>a weapon would be able to kill at a distance, simply
>by increasing the current above 250 milliamps.
>US and UK war planners are pursuing this technology,
>arguing that it would provide a new weapon for the
>military operations. But as Nick Lewer of the Peace
>Studies Department of Bradford University told the The
>Sunday Times of London, the device would "not be
>practicable in combat" and is more likely to be used
>"by the military police where restraint is the aim."
>The repression of anti-globalization protests reached
>new heights in Genoa, Italy, with one anarchist youth
>shot in the head and crushed under the wheels of an
>armored police vehicle. In an unprovoked pre-dawn
>raid, police brutally clubbed scores of activists
>sleeping in the offices of the Genoa Social Forum.
>More than 70 people were injured in an assault that
>left floors covered with blood and broken teeth.
>In preparation for the meeting of the G-8 economic
>superpowers, the Italian government mobilized 20,000
>troops, 15 helicopters, four planes and seven naval
>boats. It stockpiled tear gas, water cannons, rubber
>bullets and 200 "body bags." Throughout the event,
>protesters were monitored by rooftop squads, hidden
>cameras and even satellite surveillance. 
>In a Covert Action cover story (April-June 2001),
>Episcopal Priest Frank Morales identifies what
>happened in Genoa as part of a "new phase in the
>global class war" that is directed against "those
>civilian sectors of the world in opposition to the
>global corporate agenda." The response is
>characterized by "an increasingly militarized and
>coordinated global police apparatus [that] is moving
>to extend its sway."
>From Seattle to Philadelphia, from DC to Prague, from
>Davos and Gottenberg to Genoa, the forces of
>globalization have responded to growing civilian
>protests with an escalating array of "non-lethal"
>crowd-control technologies. The roots of this military
>response to public protest lies in the Pentagon's
>Civil Disturbance Plan 55-2 - a previously secret
>military plan code-named "Operation Garden Plot." As
>Morales notes, this covert plan to contain domestic
>"civil disturbance" now is being "tailored to fit the
>military and political requirements of American
>corporate global domination and social control, at
>home and abroad."
>The report Technologies of Political Control only
>hints at the what the future holds. The
>face-identification systems cited in the report are
>now being installed in the US, UK and Israel.
>Visionics Corp. Face-It surveillance spy cameras have
>been mounted in Tampa, Florida and other US cities.
>Banks will soon be using Face-It technology, retinal
>eye-scans and other "biometric" data to identify
>customers who use ATM machines.
>"Americans now face a choice about how far we want to
>go down the road to being a surveillance society,"
>says George Washington University Law Professor
>Jeffrey Rosen. Even GOP Majority Leader Dick Armey
>(R-TX) is worried. "We are taking a step in the wrong
>direction if we allow this powerful technology to be
>turned against citizens who have done no wrong," Armey
>has warned.
>Resources: Waging War on Dissent, a 24-page report by
>the Seattle National Lawyers' Guild [PO Box 95242,
>Seattle, WA 98145, (206) 405-4651]. Genoa Social
>Forum, via San Luca 15/9 - 16124 Genova, Italy.
>Eyewitness reports from Genoa: .
>Torture 'Liveware'
>The creation of a bureaucracy practicing systematic
>human rights violation will often include specialists
>referred to as "liveware" - paramilitary, intelligence
>and internal security police, foreign technical
>advisers, counter-insurgency and low intensity
>conflict strategists, and other "white collar
>mercenaries" schooled in the ideological attitudes
>necessary to keep such systems in operation. 
>In some cases this schooling takes place at the
>infamous School of the Americas based at Fort Benning
>in Georgia - otherwise known at the "School of the
>Assassins." The school has been accused of training
>death squads in Guatemala and Honduras. 
>For the last decade, the export of "security" training
>has become a highly profitable commercial proposition.
>Such technologies are now entering Europe from the US.
>Sadly, it no longer comes as a surprise to discover
>that Western liberal democracies have been colluding
>with the torture trade. During the 1980s, US companies
>such as Technipol were advertising thumbcuffs, leg
>irons and shackles. The Danish Medical Group of
>Amnesty International found that electronic prods
>manufactured by the US Shok-Baton Co. had been used in
>the violation of human rights. A repentant Uruguayan
>torturer confessed that he had used US-made
>electroshock batons.
>Back in 1984, it emerged that US export regulations
>had special customs codes for "specially designed
>instruments of torture." Category codes in the export
>administration regulations had been extended to
>include: saps, thumbcuffs, thumbscrews, leg irons,
>shackles, handcuffs, stun guns, shock batons, electric
>cattle prods, straightjackets and specially designed
>implements of torture. 
>On November 13, 1995, the US Secretary of Commerce
>informed the speaker of the House that it had added a
>new section to the Export Administration Regulations -
>Section 776.19, "Implements of Torture." After this
>review took place, it was disclosed that the US
>government had approved the sale of thumbcuffs to
>Russia; blackjacks, stun guns and shock batons to
>Lithuania, Moldova, Panama and Tanzania; and
>electronic riot shields and batons to Mexico.
>Execution Technologies
>Us companies such as Leutcher Associates, Inc. of
>Massachusetts supply and service gas chambers and
>design, supply and install electric chairs and
>The $30,000 Leutcher lethal injection system is the
>cheapest system the company sells. While their
>electrocution systems cost $50,000 and a gallows would
>cost approximately $85,000, more and more states are
>opting for Leutcher's $100,000 "execution trailer,"
>which comes complete with a lethal injection machine,
>a steel holding cell for an inmate and separate areas
>for witnesses, a chaplain, prison workers and medical
>European designers, meanwhile, are tendering for
>Middle Eastern prison building work with all the
>attendant requirements to cater to Islamic shari'a
>laws and requisite punishments and amputations.
>EU to Spy on Anti-Globalists
>Belgium - European police and intelligence officials
>have been ordered to "identify and track...
>anti-capitalist demonstrators" according to The
>Independent (London). German Interior Minister Otto
>Schily has called for a Europe-wide force "modeled on
>the FBI." 
>"Central to the new push," The Independent reports,
>"is the secret Article 36 committee... and the
>Schengen Information System, both of which allow for
>extensive contact and data-sharing between police
>Tony Bunyan, editor of Statewatch magazine, warned:
>"This will give the green light to Special Branch and
>M15 [British Intelligence] to put under surveillance
>people whose activities are entirely democratic."
>All that was required of (the proles) was a primitive patriotism which
could be appealed to whenever it was necessary for them to work longer hours
or accept shorter rations.  And even when they became discontented . . ,
their discontent led nowhere, because, being led without general ideas, they
could only focus it on specific petty grievances.  The larger evils
invariably escaped their notice.--_1984_, George Orwell.
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