Having recently tested with FTDNA (only myself; I finally had to give up on 
convincing my parents to test) and also uploaded my results to GEDmatch, two 
unexpected gene sources pop up in several of my GEDmatch analyses, neither of 
which seems likely to have come via my 0% Portuguese father but both of which 
easily make historical sense as coming via my 100% (?) Azorean mother:

1.  South American Amerind.  Presumably, this line most likely originated in 
Brazil and got passed along via caboclo/mestiço descendants who either moved to 
the Azores or passed through (merchant? sailor?  other sort of traveler?) and 
left some DNA behind.  

Interestingly, a Brazilian man who lives near me in South Florida and whose 
surname is the same as that of an ancestor of mine whose father was a pai 
incógnito has been identified by FTDNA as a likely 2nd-4th cousin, and in our 
correspondence so far has noted that there is reputedly indigenous ancestry in 
that line, and that that is consistent with his own small amount of indigenous 
ancestry that tests show.  I'm hoping to find out whether anyone in that line 
of his ever traved outside of Brazil... At this point, I have to think that 
it's entirely possible that our relationship is the result not of an Azorean 
who brought genes to Brazil but of a Brazilian who brought genes to the Azores. 

And regardless of whether his line is actually the source of my (apparent) 
South American Amerind genes, I got those genes from *somewhere*, so they got 
to the Azores *somehow*.

2.  Melanesian and Austronesian (i.e., "Malayo-Polynesian").  These results 
appear separately, but the simplest explanation for how these genes arrived to 
help create me suggests that they go together.  

In other words, where the Melanesian and Austronesian worlds meet and overlap, 
there are a number of islands where the inhabitants are of mixed Melanesian and 
Austronesian ancestry -- and by the way, these also happen to be the very 
places where there was an early Portuguese trade presence, and then Portuguese 
imperial and military presence, and where a significant mestiço population 
quickly arose from unions between local women and Portuguese men:  the Moluccas 
islands (a.k.a. Maluku), the island of Flores (not the Azorean one, the one now 
in eastern Indonesia), and the island of Timor (now split between Indonesia and 

Presumably, a member of the mestiço population of one of these islands either 
moved to or traveled through the Azores, or else to Portugal or another 
location in the Portuguese world, leaving descendants, one of whom ultimately 
moved to the Azores, or passed through, and left some of their DNA behind.

So, I know that this group has frequently discussed Portuguese and other 
specific European descents in the Azores; Sub-Saharan African contributions to 
the Azorean gene pool (and in Portugal before descendants moved to the Azores), 
whether through enslaved people or otherwise; Jewish descents via Sephardic and 
converso lines; and even Arab and Berber genetic contributions to the 
Portuguese and so the Azorean gene pools.

I may not have been paying sufficient attention, but I can't recall having seen 
yet any similar discussions here of lines in the Azores that likely reflect 
rare gene flows from other parts of the world and other peoples of the world, 
in particular from the various mestiço peoples that formed in these other 
places that were parts of the Portuguese Empire.  My personal examples are, as 
far as the data seem to say, apparently only from (indigenous) Brazil and from 
Timor/Flores/Moluccas, but similar gene flows might also plausibly have 
occurred from Macau/China, from Goa and other parts of Portuguese India, and 
maybe from some other places that haven't yet occurred to me.

Have others of you received GEDmatch or other analyses that indicate possible 
descent from any of these peoples?  It would be interesting to hear from others 
who have, and possibly to explore setting up a database to track these lines 
together (including gathering together any records that might document the 
origins of these lines, e.g., documentation of people known or likely to be 
from these peoples who were present in or passed through the Azores).  

On the one hand, I suspect that these lines are rare, but still present to some 
degree, and on the other hand I believe they could -- precisely because of 
their rarity -- provide an interesting tool to tie together some families, all 
of whom would stand out from the "haystack" if they not only test as being 
related but also share a specific rare-origin line within the larger Azorean 
gene pool.  Plus, it would be quite interesting (even if unlikely) to be able 
to know the actual line of descent back to these peoples and places. 

In any event, whether in the group or via private message, I'd love to connect 
with others of you who may have encountered lines of this nature, and maybe 
explore ways we could collaborate on sharing information.

Of course, it may make sense in any such effort also to bring in known 
Sub-Saharan African lines and individuals, even though they are surely 
comparatively less rare than these other descents, because the lines are still 
sufficiently few in the Azores that it could help connect families in the same 
way, as well as in some instances succeed in identifying the person who brought 
the line to the Azores.  Plus, in lines coming especially from Brazil, Native 
lines and Sub-Saharan African lines might often have merged...

Just thinking out loud here a bit.

David da Silva Cornell
Miami, FL

Researching the following surnames and places:
Faial - Furtado, Terra, Furtado da Terra (unknown freguesia(s), but signs 
currently point to Pedro Miguel)
Flores - Freitas, Lourenço, Coelho (unknown freguesia(s))
Pico - Silveira Cardoso, Macedo, Machado, Pereira Madruga, Ferreira, 
Cardoso, Cardoso Machado, Vieira, Bettencourt, Dutra, Castanho, Homem, 
Goulart, Quaresma, Moniz, Barreto, Silveira, Pereira, Álvares (all Lajes do 
S. Jorge - Silva, Botelho, Azevedo, Cardoso (Urzelina); Silva, Azevedo, 
Cardoso (Santo António in Norte Grande)

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