# Beginners Digest, Vol 118, Issue 5

```Send Beginners mailing list submissions to

To subscribe or unsubscribe via the World Wide Web, visit
or, via email, send a message with subject or body 'help' to
```
You can reach the person managing the list at

When replying, please edit your Subject line so it is more specific
than "Re: Contents of Beginners digest..."

Today's Topics:

1.  May I ask what is the meaning of ch <= 'z' and   'a' <= ch.
(=?utf-8?B?5riF5769?=)
2. Re:  May I ask what is the meaning of ch <= 'z' and 'a' <=
ch. (Francesco Ariis)
3.  2018 report (Karim Salah)
4. Re:  2018 report (Francesco Ariis)
5. Re:  2018 report (Karim Salah)
6. Re:  May I ask what is the meaning of ch <= 'z' and 'a' <=
ch. (Theodore Lief Gannon)

----------------------------------------------------------------------

Message: 1
Date: Tue, 10 Apr 2018 20:47:17 +0800
From: "=?utf-8?B?5riF5769?=" <1625143...@qq.com>
Subject: [Haskell-beginners] May I ask what is the meaning of ch <=
'z' and 'a' <= ch.
Message-ID: <tencent_7d6be0917e8ba523a90aa55dedc522c57...@qq.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

Hello everyone, I have a simple question here     Define a function isLower ::
Char -> Bool which returns True if a given character is a lower case letter.
You can use the fact that characters are ordered, and for all lower case
letters ch we have ′a′ ≤ ch and ch ≤ ′z′. Alternatively, you can use the fact
that ['a'..'z'] evaluates to a list containing all lower case letters.
And May I ask what is the meaning of ch <= 'z' and 'a' <= ch? I copied this
as a condition and solved the problem.here is my work.
isLower :: Char -> Bool
isLower x = if x ch <= 'z' && 'a' <= ch then True else False.
-------------- next part --------------
An HTML attachment was scrubbed...
URL:

------------------------------

Message: 2
Date: Tue, 10 Apr 2018 15:38:58 +0200
From: Francesco Ariis <fa...@ariis.it>
To: The Haskell-Beginners Mailing List - Discussion of primarily
Subject: Re: [Haskell-beginners] May I ask what is the meaning of ch
<= 'z' and 'a' <= ch.
Message-ID: <20180410133858.cl7yp2pepvvc4...@x60s.casa>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=utf-8

On Tue, Apr 10, 2018 at 08:47:17PM +0800, 清羽 wrote:
>     And May I ask what is the meaning of ch <= 'z' and 'a' <= ch? I copied
> this as a condition and solved the problem.here is my work.
>     isLower :: Char -> Bool
>     isLower x = if x ch <= 'z' && 'a' <= ch then True else False.
>     Thanks in advance.

Hello 清羽, Char is an instance of Ord, so you can use <, compare, etc.
with it.
<= and >= stand for "less or equal than" and "greater or equal than".

As with many enumeration types, the order is a bit arbitrary

λ> minBound :: Char
'\NUL'
λ> maxBound :: Char
'\1114111'
λ> ['\$'..'Z']
"\$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ"
-- so * will be < than, say, A
λ> '*' < 'A'
True

------------------------------

Message: 3
Date: Tue, 10 Apr 2018 17:35:56 +0200
From: Karim Salah <karim.salah2...@gmail.com>
Subject: [Haskell-beginners] 2018 report
Message-ID:
<caaktkwxunawo8asgtm4ojft8bvl+jndjtkzcj9zfxzngbn4...@mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

hi everyone,
I am wondering how can i submit a contribution in the Haskell report.
It is stated up here:
that i shall send my contribution hcar at haskell.org which i have no clue
how to this
i will appreciate any help
-------------- next part --------------
An HTML attachment was scrubbed...
URL:

------------------------------

Message: 4
Date: Tue, 10 Apr 2018 17:56:45 +0200
From: Francesco Ariis <fa...@ariis.it>
Subject: Re: [Haskell-beginners] 2018 report
Message-ID: <20180410155645.wqlml4w4sfczd...@x60s.casa>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii

On Tue, Apr 10, 2018 at 05:35:56PM +0200, Karim Salah wrote:
> hi everyone,
> I am wondering how can i submit a contribution in the Haskell report.
> It is stated up here:
> that i shall send my contribution hcar at haskell.org which i have no clue
> how to this
> i will appreciate any help
> Thanks in advance

Hey Karim,
it is "please send your contributions to *hcar* at haskell.org"
in the same (antispam) fashion as "karim.salah2048 at gmail.com"
-F

------------------------------

Message: 5
Date: Tue, 10 Apr 2018 19:06:21 +0200
From: Karim Salah <karim.salah2...@gmail.com>
To: The Haskell-Beginners Mailing List - Discussion of primarily
Subject: Re: [Haskell-beginners] 2018 report
Message-ID:
<caaktkwzfa7tz38yd+bffa2kapyttz5dd8fjmfatgmcsqqey...@mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

Now i get it
thanks a lot

On Tue, Apr 10, 2018 at 5:56 PM, Francesco Ariis <fa...@ariis.it> wrote:

> On Tue, Apr 10, 2018 at 05:35:56PM +0200, Karim Salah wrote:
> > hi everyone,
> > I am wondering how can i submit a contribution in the Haskell report.
> > It is stated up here:
> > that i shall send my contribution hcar at haskell.org which i have no
> clue
> > how to this
> > i will appreciate any help
> > Thanks in advance
>
> Hey Karim,
>     it is "please send your contributions to *hcar* at haskell.org"
> in the same (antispam) fashion as "karim.salah2048 at gmail.com"
> -F
>
>
> _______________________________________________
> Beginners mailing list
>
-------------- next part --------------
An HTML attachment was scrubbed...
URL:

------------------------------

Message: 6
Date: Tue, 10 Apr 2018 17:51:17 +0000
From: Theodore Lief Gannon <tan...@gmail.com>
To: The Haskell-Beginners Mailing List - Discussion of primarily
Subject: Re: [Haskell-beginners] May I ask what is the meaning of ch
<= 'z' and 'a' <= ch.
Message-ID:
<CAJoPsuBYndP7z6=ahNSdxO5AQwQK5SdSEEn4aUa=zm65otq...@mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

'ch' here is a variable, standing for 'character.' It takes the place of
'x'. Your solution is almost correct, you just need to pick one name or the
other for your variable.

On Tue, Apr 10, 2018, 5:51 AM 清羽 <1625143...@qq.com> wrote:

> Hello everyone, I have a simple question here
>     Define a function isLower :: Char -> Bool which returns True if a
> given character is a lower case letter. You can use the fact that
> characters are ordered, and for all lower case letters *ch* we have ′*a*′
> ≤ *c**h* and *c**h* ≤ ′*z*′. Alternatively, you can use the fact that ['a'
> ..'z'] evaluates to a list containing all lower case letters.
>     And May I ask what is the meaning of ch <= 'z' and 'a' <= ch? I
> copied this as a condition and solved the problem.here is my work.
>     isLower :: Char -> Bool
>     isLower x = if x ch <= 'z' && 'a' <= ch then True else False.
>     Thanks in advance.
>
> _______________________________________________
> Beginners mailing list
>
-------------- next part --------------
An HTML attachment was scrubbed...
URL:

------------------------------

Subject: Digest Footer

_______________________________________________
Beginners mailing list