This update strengthens the incentive not to confirm double-spends after 
time T (30 seconds).  To grow and stabilize adoption, it is necessary to 
influence the miner of the block after a deprecated block, who in turn 
is concerned with the block after that. Accordingly, the disincentive is 
changed from a simple delay to a temporary chain work penalty, which can 
be negative.  Hal Finney first suggested this in 2011.

The penalty is graduated in two steps based on the respend gap, for 
reasons explained within.  I believe it is the minimum required to 
achieve the intended result.

Double-Spend Deprecation Window

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