Dear Andrew and Stuart,

   Having just now looked at the tablature, I wonder if the the instrument
   intended was in fact the mandora rather than the cittern. Altho' most
   mid-18thC mandora tunings are similar to the 'spanish' guitar intervals
   (except mostly for only a tone between 5th and 6th courses) there are a
   number of sources which require odd tunings - this may be one such.
   And, of course, Moravia and Bohemia was the birthplace and heartland of
   the mandora/gallichon - as also witnessed by the quantity of surviving
   mandora tablatures in monasteries there.

   Certainly the tablature looks exactly as other contemporary mandora
   tablatures but I'm not particularly  knowledgable about the cittern of
   the same date in Moravia/central Europe: was it a common instrument? -
   more so than the popular mandora?

   --- On Sun, 16/8/09, Andrew Hartig <>

     From: Andrew Hartig <>
     Subject: [CITTERN] Re: Moravian Choralbuch [rights]
     Date: Sunday, 16 August, 2009, 7:51 PM

      I will need to check with Lanie Graf about the rights for
      I think it may be a semantic issue of what qualifies as "music". I
      believe the permission should be sought only for the reproduction of
      the tablature (music) of physical manuscript (e.g. you would need to
      seek permission if you were to create an edition or include a
      photograph as part of a book).
      Let me find out, and sorry for the confusion. Thanks also to all of
      those who have taken an interest in this music!
      At 01:57 AM 8/16/2009, you wrote:
        Hello Stuart,
        That is strange nobody can play a music which is almost 300 years
        old. In France, at this age, music is public with no more rights".
        I am probably wrong, but I don't see well the problem.
        ----- Original Message ----- From: "Stuart Walsh"
        To: "Andrew Hartig" <[2]>
        Cc: <[3]>
        Sent: Saturday, August 15, 2009 11:42 PM
        Subject: [CITTERN] Re: Moravian Choralbuch
        Stuart Walsh wrote:
        Andrew Hartig wrote:
        Dear all,
        Some time back Andy Rutherford had told us about a manuscript book
        (BMB4) in the Moravian Archives of Bethlehem, PA (USA) for
        cittern, tuned GCEgbe. Andy managed to get over there to take some
        photos, and after quite a few emails with the folks at the
        Archives, I am pleased to announce that Andy's photographs of the
        book are now available for public download from my web site.
        I have compiled all of his photos into a single PDF (25 MB). You
        get to it from the "Music Files" page of the Renaissance Cittern
        Site, [1][4] (scroll
        to the "box" for 18th century music), where perhaps you may also
        find something else of interest.
        Special thanks again to Lanie Graf and all the other fine people
        the Moravian Archives and Andy Rutherford for working together to
        make this possible!
        Very interesting and a great resource. Thanks Andrew.  There's
        to ponder. For example the funny little 11 sign, which is perhaps
        ornament.  And these settings include the tune, as sung?
        The chorale settings seem (after a quick look) quite full, with
        voice leading etc.  No 40 sounds vaguely familiar. Here's a quick
        recording on a factory-made Russian guitar, but in the GCEgbe
        tuning. A lot of the pieces are in C major, even though the tuning
        isn't fully chordal.
        [2][5] (deleted - just
        "The manuscript and its music may not be reproduced or published
        without the consent of the Moravian Archives." Sorry!)
        And here's one of the little dance tunes at the end (with a rather
        glaring mistake in the repeat of the second strain!):
        [3][6] (deleted)
        I think it was Rob who said that James Tyler claimed that the
        English guitar (guittar) has its origins in Germany. I haven't
        his (Tyler's) Evora paper. I looked at a link to the Evora papers
        but it was dead. Anyway, I think Germany is a likely contender for
        what got makers in Britain going in the 1750s. But the cittern in
        Germany itself seems not to have got involved in the 'guittar'
        fashion. And the music that exists (as far as I know) is in
        'old-fashioned' tablature. Boetticher (if I've spelt his name
        correctly) mentions some four-course music c.1750s and there's the
        Bunsold tablature and now this.
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