http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/nifi-minifi-cpp/blob/b02af540/include/spdlog/details/format.h
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diff --git a/include/spdlog/details/format.h b/include/spdlog/details/format.h
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+/*
+Formatting library for C++
+
+Copyright (c) 2012 - 2015, Victor Zverovich
+All rights reserved.
+
+Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
+
+1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this
+list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
+this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
+and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+
+THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
+ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
+WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
+DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR
+ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
+(INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES;
+LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND
+ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
+(INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
+SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
+*/
+
+#ifndef FMT_FORMAT_H_
+#define FMT_FORMAT_H_
+
+#define FMT_HEADER_ONLY
+
+#include <stdint.h>
+
+#include <cassert>
+#include <cmath>
+#include <cstddef>  // for std::ptrdiff_t
+#include <cstdio>
+#include <algorithm>
+#include <limits>
+#include <stdexcept>
+#include <string>
+#include <sstream>
+#include <map>
+
+#if _SECURE_SCL
+# include <iterator>
+#endif
+
+#ifdef _MSC_VER
+# include <intrin.h>  // _BitScanReverse, _BitScanReverse64
+
+namespace fmt {
+namespace internal {
+# pragma intrinsic(_BitScanReverse)
+inline uint32_t clz(uint32_t x) {
+    unsigned long r = 0;
+    _BitScanReverse(&r, x);
+    return 31 - r;
+}
+# define FMT_BUILTIN_CLZ(n) fmt::internal::clz(n)
+
+# ifdef _WIN64
+#  pragma intrinsic(_BitScanReverse64)
+# endif
+
+inline uint32_t clzll(uint64_t x) {
+    unsigned long r = 0;
+# ifdef _WIN64
+    _BitScanReverse64(&r, x);
+# else
+    // Scan the high 32 bits.
+    if (_BitScanReverse(&r, static_cast<uint32_t>(x >> 32)))
+        return 63 - (r + 32);
+
+    // Scan the low 32 bits.
+    _BitScanReverse(&r, static_cast<uint32_t>(x));
+# endif
+    return 63 - r;
+}
+# define FMT_BUILTIN_CLZLL(n) fmt::internal::clzll(n)
+}
+}
+#endif
+
+#ifdef __GNUC__
+# define FMT_GCC_VERSION (__GNUC__ * 100 + __GNUC_MINOR__)
+# define FMT_GCC_EXTENSION __extension__
+# if FMT_GCC_VERSION >= 406
+#  pragma GCC diagnostic push
+// Disable the warning about "long long" which is sometimes reported even
+// when using __extension__.
+#  pragma GCC diagnostic ignored "-Wlong-long"
+// Disable the warning about declaration shadowing because it affects too
+// many valid cases.
+#  pragma GCC diagnostic ignored "-Wshadow"
+# endif
+# if __cplusplus >= 201103L || defined __GXX_EXPERIMENTAL_CXX0X__
+#  define FMT_HAS_GXX_CXX11 1
+# endif
+#else
+# define FMT_GCC_EXTENSION
+#endif
+
+#ifdef __clang__
+# pragma clang diagnostic push
+# pragma clang diagnostic ignored "-Wdocumentation"
+#endif
+
+#ifdef __GNUC_LIBSTD__
+# define FMT_GNUC_LIBSTD_VERSION (__GNUC_LIBSTD__ * 100 + 
__GNUC_LIBSTD_MINOR__)
+#endif
+
+#ifdef __has_feature
+# define FMT_HAS_FEATURE(x) __has_feature(x)
+#else
+# define FMT_HAS_FEATURE(x) 0
+#endif
+
+#ifdef __has_builtin
+# define FMT_HAS_BUILTIN(x) __has_builtin(x)
+#else
+# define FMT_HAS_BUILTIN(x) 0
+#endif
+
+#ifdef __has_cpp_attribute
+# define FMT_HAS_CPP_ATTRIBUTE(x) __has_cpp_attribute(x)
+#else
+# define FMT_HAS_CPP_ATTRIBUTE(x) 0
+#endif
+
+#ifndef FMT_USE_VARIADIC_TEMPLATES
+// Variadic templates are available in GCC since version 4.4
+// (http://gcc.gnu.org/projects/cxx0x.html) and in Visual C++
+// since version 2013.
+# define FMT_USE_VARIADIC_TEMPLATES \
+   (FMT_HAS_FEATURE(cxx_variadic_templates) || \
+       (FMT_GCC_VERSION >= 404 && FMT_HAS_GXX_CXX11) || _MSC_VER >= 1800)
+#endif
+
+#ifndef FMT_USE_RVALUE_REFERENCES
+// Don't use rvalue references when compiling with clang and an old libstdc++
+// as the latter doesn't provide std::move.
+# if defined(FMT_GNUC_LIBSTD_VERSION) && FMT_GNUC_LIBSTD_VERSION <= 402
+#  define FMT_USE_RVALUE_REFERENCES 0
+# else
+#  define FMT_USE_RVALUE_REFERENCES \
+    (FMT_HAS_FEATURE(cxx_rvalue_references) || \
+        (FMT_GCC_VERSION >= 403 && FMT_HAS_GXX_CXX11) || _MSC_VER >= 1600)
+# endif
+#endif
+
+#if FMT_USE_RVALUE_REFERENCES
+# include <utility>  // for std::move
+#endif
+
+// Define FMT_USE_NOEXCEPT to make C++ Format use noexcept (C++11 feature).
+#ifndef FMT_NOEXCEPT
+# if FMT_USE_NOEXCEPT || FMT_HAS_FEATURE(cxx_noexcept) || \
+   (FMT_GCC_VERSION >= 408 && FMT_HAS_GXX_CXX11)
+#  define FMT_NOEXCEPT noexcept
+# else
+#  define FMT_NOEXCEPT throw()
+# endif
+#endif
+
+// A macro to disallow the copy constructor and operator= functions
+// This should be used in the private: declarations for a class
+#if FMT_USE_DELETED_FUNCTIONS || FMT_HAS_FEATURE(cxx_deleted_functions) || \
+  (FMT_GCC_VERSION >= 404 && FMT_HAS_GXX_CXX11) || _MSC_VER >= 1800
+# define FMT_DELETED_OR_UNDEFINED  = delete
+# define FMT_DISALLOW_COPY_AND_ASSIGN(TypeName) \
+    TypeName(const TypeName&) = delete; \
+    TypeName& operator=(const TypeName&) = delete
+#else
+# define FMT_DELETED_OR_UNDEFINED
+# define FMT_DISALLOW_COPY_AND_ASSIGN(TypeName) \
+    TypeName(const TypeName&); \
+    TypeName& operator=(const TypeName&)
+#endif
+
+#ifndef FMT_ASSERT
+# define FMT_ASSERT(condition, message) assert((condition) && message)
+#endif
+
+namespace fmt {
+
+// Fix the warning about long long on older versions of GCC
+// that don't support the diagnostic pragma.
+FMT_GCC_EXTENSION typedef long long LongLong;
+FMT_GCC_EXTENSION typedef unsigned long long ULongLong;
+
+#if FMT_USE_RVALUE_REFERENCES
+using std::move;
+#endif
+
+template <typename Char>
+class BasicWriter;
+
+typedef BasicWriter<char> Writer;
+typedef BasicWriter<wchar_t> WWriter;
+
+template <typename Char>
+class BasicFormatter;
+
+template <typename Char, typename T>
+void format(BasicFormatter<Char> &f, const Char *&format_str, const T &value);
+
+/**
+\rst
+A string reference. It can be constructed from a C string or ``std::string``.
+
+You can use one of the following typedefs for common character types:
+
++------------+-------------------------+
+| Type       | Definition              |
++============+=========================+
+| StringRef  | BasicStringRef<char>    |
++------------+-------------------------+
+| WStringRef | BasicStringRef<wchar_t> |
++------------+-------------------------+
+
+This class is most useful as a parameter type to allow passing
+different types of strings to a function, for example::
+
+template <typename... Args>
+std::string format(StringRef format_str, const Args & ... args);
+
+format("{}", 42);
+format(std::string("{}"), 42);
+\endrst
+*/
+template <typename Char>
+class BasicStringRef {
+private:
+    const Char *data_;
+    std::size_t size_;
+
+public:
+    /** Constructs a string reference object from a C string and a size. */
+    BasicStringRef(const Char *s, std::size_t size) : data_(s), size_(size) {}
+
+    /**
+    \rst
+    Constructs a string reference object from a C string computing
+    the size with ``std::char_traits<Char>::length``.
+    \endrst
+    */
+    BasicStringRef(const Char *s)
+        : data_(s), size_(std::char_traits<Char>::length(s)) {}
+
+    /**
+    \rst
+    Constructs a string reference from an ``std::string`` object.
+    \endrst
+    */
+    BasicStringRef(const std::basic_string<Char> &s)
+        : data_(s.c_str()), size_(s.size()) {}
+
+    /**
+    \rst
+    Converts a string reference to an ``std::string`` object.
+    \endrst
+    */
+    std::basic_string<Char> to_string() const {
+        return std::basic_string<Char>(data_, size_);
+    }
+
+    /** Returns the pointer to a C string. */
+    const Char *data() const {
+        return data_;
+    }
+
+    /** Returns the string size. */
+    std::size_t size() const {
+        return size_;
+    }
+
+    friend bool operator==(BasicStringRef lhs, BasicStringRef rhs) {
+        return lhs.data_ == rhs.data_;
+    }
+    friend bool operator!=(BasicStringRef lhs, BasicStringRef rhs) {
+        return lhs.data_ != rhs.data_;
+    }
+    friend bool operator<(BasicStringRef lhs, BasicStringRef rhs) {
+        return std::lexicographical_compare(
+                   lhs.data_, lhs.data_ + lhs.size_, rhs.data_, rhs.data_ + 
rhs.size_);
+    }
+};
+
+typedef BasicStringRef<char> StringRef;
+typedef BasicStringRef<wchar_t> WStringRef;
+
+
+/**
+\rst
+A reference to a null terminated string. It can be constructed from a C
+string or ``std::string``.
+
+You can use one of the following typedefs for common character types:
+
++-------------+--------------------------+
+| Type        | Definition               |
++=============+==========================+
+| CStringRef  | BasicCStringRef<char>    |
++-------------+--------------------------+
+| WCStringRef | BasicCStringRef<wchar_t> |
++-------------+--------------------------+
+
+This class is most useful as a parameter type to allow passing
+different types of strings to a function, for example::
+
+template <typename... Args>
+std::string format(CStringRef format_str, const Args & ... args);
+
+format("{}", 42);
+format(std::string("{}"), 42);
+\endrst
+*/
+template <typename Char>
+class BasicCStringRef {
+private:
+    const Char *data_;
+
+public:
+    /** Constructs a string reference object from a C string. */
+    BasicCStringRef(const Char *s) : data_(s) {}
+
+    /**
+    \rst
+    Constructs a string reference from an ``std::string`` object.
+    \endrst
+    */
+    BasicCStringRef(const std::basic_string<Char> &s) : data_(s.c_str()) {}
+
+    /** Returns the pointer to a C string. */
+    const Char *c_str() const {
+        return data_;
+    }
+};
+
+typedef BasicCStringRef<char> CStringRef;
+typedef BasicCStringRef<wchar_t> WCStringRef;
+
+/**
+A formatting error such as invalid format string.
+*/
+class FormatError : public std::runtime_error {
+public:
+    explicit FormatError(CStringRef message)
+        : std::runtime_error(message.c_str()) {}
+};
+
+namespace internal {
+// The number of characters to store in the MemoryBuffer object itself
+// to avoid dynamic memory allocation.
+enum { INLINE_BUFFER_SIZE = 500 };
+
+#if _SECURE_SCL
+// Use checked iterator to avoid warnings on MSVC.
+template <typename T>
+inline stdext::checked_array_iterator<T*> make_ptr(T *ptr, std::size_t size) {
+    return stdext::checked_array_iterator<T*>(ptr, size);
+}
+#else
+template <typename T>
+inline T *make_ptr(T *ptr, std::size_t) {
+    return ptr;
+}
+#endif
+}  // namespace internal
+
+/**
+\rst
+A buffer supporting a subset of ``std::vector``'s operations.
+\endrst
+*/
+template <typename T>
+class Buffer {
+private:
+    FMT_DISALLOW_COPY_AND_ASSIGN(Buffer);
+
+protected:
+    T *ptr_;
+    std::size_t size_;
+    std::size_t capacity_;
+
+    Buffer(T *ptr = 0, std::size_t capacity = 0)
+        : ptr_(ptr), size_(0), capacity_(capacity) {}
+
+    /**
+    \rst
+    Increases the buffer capacity to hold at least *size* elements updating
+    ``ptr_`` and ``capacity_``.
+    \endrst
+    */
+    virtual void grow(std::size_t size) = 0;
+
+public:
+    virtual ~Buffer() {}
+
+    /** Returns the size of this buffer. */
+    std::size_t size() const {
+        return size_;
+    }
+
+    /** Returns the capacity of this buffer. */
+    std::size_t capacity() const {
+        return capacity_;
+    }
+
+    /**
+    Resizes the buffer. If T is a POD type new elements may not be initialized.
+    */
+    void resize(std::size_t new_size) {
+        if (new_size > capacity_)
+            grow(new_size);
+        size_ = new_size;
+    }
+
+    /**
+    \rst
+    Reserves space to store at least *capacity* elements.
+    \endrst
+    */
+    void reserve(std::size_t capacity) {
+        if (capacity > capacity_)
+            grow(capacity);
+    }
+
+    void clear() FMT_NOEXCEPT{ size_ = 0; }
+
+    void push_back(const T &value) {
+        if (size_ == capacity_)
+            grow(size_ + 1);
+        ptr_[size_++] = value;
+    }
+
+    /** Appends data to the end of the buffer. */
+    template <typename U>
+    void append(const U *begin, const U *end);
+
+    T &operator[](std::size_t index) {
+        return ptr_[index];
+    }
+    const T &operator[](std::size_t index) const {
+        return ptr_[index];
+    }
+};
+
+template <typename T>
+template <typename U>
+void Buffer<T>::append(const U *begin, const U *end) {
+    std::ptrdiff_t num_elements = end - begin;
+    if (size_ + num_elements > capacity_)
+        grow(size_ + num_elements);
+    std::copy(begin, end, internal::make_ptr(ptr_, capacity_) + size_);
+    size_ += num_elements;
+}
+
+namespace internal {
+
+// A memory buffer for POD types with the first SIZE elements stored in
+// the object itself.
+template <typename T, std::size_t SIZE, typename Allocator = std::allocator<T> 
>
+class MemoryBuffer : private Allocator, public Buffer<T> {
+private:
+    T data_[SIZE];
+
+    // Free memory allocated by the buffer.
+    void free() {
+        if (this->ptr_ != data_) this->deallocate(this->ptr_, this->capacity_);
+    }
+
+protected:
+    void grow(std::size_t size);
+
+public:
+    explicit MemoryBuffer(const Allocator &alloc = Allocator())
+        : Allocator(alloc), Buffer<T>(data_, SIZE) {}
+    ~MemoryBuffer() {
+        free();
+    }
+
+#if FMT_USE_RVALUE_REFERENCES
+private:
+    // Move data from other to this buffer.
+    void move(MemoryBuffer &other) {
+        Allocator &this_alloc = *this, &other_alloc = other;
+        this_alloc = std::move(other_alloc);
+        this->size_ = other.size_;
+        this->capacity_ = other.capacity_;
+        if (other.ptr_ == other.data_) {
+            this->ptr_ = data_;
+            std::copy(other.data_,
+                      other.data_ + this->size_, make_ptr(data_, 
this->capacity_));
+        }
+        else {
+            this->ptr_ = other.ptr_;
+            // Set pointer to the inline array so that delete is not called
+            // when freeing.
+            other.ptr_ = other.data_;
+        }
+    }
+
+public:
+    MemoryBuffer(MemoryBuffer &&other) {
+        move(other);
+    }
+
+    MemoryBuffer &operator=(MemoryBuffer &&other) {
+        assert(this != &other);
+        free();
+        move(other);
+        return *this;
+    }
+#endif
+
+    // Returns a copy of the allocator associated with this buffer.
+    Allocator get_allocator() const {
+        return *this;
+    }
+};
+
+template <typename T, std::size_t SIZE, typename Allocator>
+void MemoryBuffer<T, SIZE, Allocator>::grow(std::size_t size) {
+    std::size_t new_capacity =
+        (std::max)(size, this->capacity_ + this->capacity_ / 2);
+    T *new_ptr = this->allocate(new_capacity);
+    // The following code doesn't throw, so the raw pointer above doesn't leak.
+    std::copy(this->ptr_,
+              this->ptr_ + this->size_, make_ptr(new_ptr, new_capacity));
+    std::size_t old_capacity = this->capacity_;
+    T *old_ptr = this->ptr_;
+    this->capacity_ = new_capacity;
+    this->ptr_ = new_ptr;
+    // deallocate may throw (at least in principle), but it doesn't matter 
since
+    // the buffer already uses the new storage and will deallocate it in case
+    // of exception.
+    if (old_ptr != data_)
+        this->deallocate(old_ptr, old_capacity);
+}
+
+// A fixed-size buffer.
+template <typename Char>
+class FixedBuffer : public fmt::Buffer<Char> {
+public:
+    FixedBuffer(Char *array, std::size_t size) : fmt::Buffer<Char>(array, 
size) {}
+
+protected:
+    void grow(std::size_t size);
+};
+
+#ifndef _MSC_VER
+// Portable version of signbit.
+inline int getsign(double x) {
+    // When compiled in C++11 mode signbit is no longer a macro but a function
+    // defined in namespace std and the macro is undefined.
+# ifdef signbit
+    return signbit(x);
+# else
+    return std::signbit(x);
+# endif
+}
+
+// Portable version of isinf.
+# ifdef isinf
+inline int isinfinity(double x) {
+    return isinf(x);
+}
+inline int isinfinity(long double x) {
+    return isinf(x);
+}
+# else
+inline int isinfinity(double x) {
+    return std::isinf(x);
+}
+inline int isinfinity(long double x) {
+    return std::isinf(x);
+}
+# endif
+#else
+inline int getsign(double value) {
+    if (value < 0) return 1;
+    if (value == value) return 0;
+    int dec = 0, sign = 0;
+    char buffer[2];  // The buffer size must be >= 2 or _ecvt_s will fail.
+    _ecvt_s(buffer, sizeof(buffer), value, 0, &dec, &sign);
+    return sign;
+}
+inline int isinfinity(double x) {
+    return !_finite(x);
+}
+inline int isinfinity(long double x) {
+    return !_finite(static_cast<double>(x));
+}
+#endif
+
+template <typename Char>
+class BasicCharTraits {
+public:
+#if _SECURE_SCL
+    typedef stdext::checked_array_iterator<Char*> CharPtr;
+#else
+    typedef Char *CharPtr;
+#endif
+    static Char cast(wchar_t value) {
+        return static_cast<Char>(value);
+    }
+};
+
+template <typename Char>
+class CharTraits;
+
+template <>
+class CharTraits<char> : public BasicCharTraits<char> {
+private:
+    // Conversion from wchar_t to char is not allowed.
+    static char convert(wchar_t);
+
+public:
+    static char convert(char value) {
+        return value;
+    }
+
+    // Formats a floating-point number.
+    template <typename T>
+    static int format_float(char *buffer, std::size_t size,
+                            const char *format, unsigned width, int precision, 
T value);
+};
+
+template <>
+class CharTraits<wchar_t> : public BasicCharTraits<wchar_t> {
+public:
+    static wchar_t convert(char value) {
+        return value;
+    }
+    static wchar_t convert(wchar_t value) {
+        return value;
+    }
+
+    template <typename T>
+    static int format_float(wchar_t *buffer, std::size_t size,
+                            const wchar_t *format, unsigned width, int 
precision, T value);
+};
+
+// Checks if a number is negative - used to avoid warnings.
+template <bool IsSigned>
+struct SignChecker {
+    template <typename T>
+    static bool is_negative(T value) {
+        return value < 0;
+    }
+};
+
+template <>
+struct SignChecker<false> {
+    template <typename T>
+    static bool is_negative(T) {
+        return false;
+    }
+};
+
+// Returns true if value is negative, false otherwise.
+// Same as (value < 0) but doesn't produce warnings if T is an unsigned type.
+template <typename T>
+inline bool is_negative(T value) {
+    return SignChecker<std::numeric_limits<T>::is_signed>::is_negative(value);
+}
+
+// Selects uint32_t if FitsIn32Bits is true, uint64_t otherwise.
+template <bool FitsIn32Bits>
+struct TypeSelector {
+    typedef uint32_t Type;
+};
+
+template <>
+struct TypeSelector<false> {
+    typedef uint64_t Type;
+};
+
+template <typename T>
+struct IntTraits {
+    // Smallest of uint32_t and uint64_t that is large enough to represent
+    // all values of T.
+    typedef typename
+    TypeSelector<std::numeric_limits<T>::digits <= 32>::Type MainType;
+};
+
+// MakeUnsigned<T>::Type gives an unsigned type corresponding to integer type 
T.
+template <typename T>
+struct MakeUnsigned {
+    typedef T Type;
+};
+
+#define FMT_SPECIALIZE_MAKE_UNSIGNED(T, U) \
+  template <> \
+  struct MakeUnsigned<T> { typedef U Type; }
+
+FMT_SPECIALIZE_MAKE_UNSIGNED(char, unsigned char);
+FMT_SPECIALIZE_MAKE_UNSIGNED(signed char, unsigned char);
+FMT_SPECIALIZE_MAKE_UNSIGNED(short, unsigned short);
+FMT_SPECIALIZE_MAKE_UNSIGNED(int, unsigned);
+FMT_SPECIALIZE_MAKE_UNSIGNED(long, unsigned long);
+FMT_SPECIALIZE_MAKE_UNSIGNED(LongLong, ULongLong);
+
+void report_unknown_type(char code, const char *type);
+
+// Static data is placed in this class template to allow header-only
+// configuration.
+template <typename T = void>
+struct BasicData {
+    static const uint32_t POWERS_OF_10_32[];
+    static const uint64_t POWERS_OF_10_64[];
+    static const char DIGITS[];
+};
+
+typedef BasicData<> Data;
+
+#if FMT_GCC_VERSION >= 400 || FMT_HAS_BUILTIN(__builtin_clz)
+# define FMT_BUILTIN_CLZ(n) __builtin_clz(n)
+#endif
+
+#if FMT_GCC_VERSION >= 400 || FMT_HAS_BUILTIN(__builtin_clzll)
+# define FMT_BUILTIN_CLZLL(n) __builtin_clzll(n)
+#endif
+
+#ifdef FMT_BUILTIN_CLZLL
+// Returns the number of decimal digits in n. Leading zeros are not counted
+// except for n == 0 in which case count_digits returns 1.
+inline unsigned count_digits(uint64_t n) {
+    // Based on 
http://graphics.stanford.edu/~seander/bithacks.html#IntegerLog10
+    // and the benchmark 
https://github.com/localvoid/cxx-benchmark-count-digits.
+    unsigned t = (64 - FMT_BUILTIN_CLZLL(n | 1)) * 1233 >> 12;
+    return t - (n < Data::POWERS_OF_10_64[t]) + 1;
+}
+#else
+// Fallback version of count_digits used when __builtin_clz is not available.
+inline unsigned count_digits(uint64_t n) {
+    unsigned count = 1;
+    for (;;) {
+        // Integer division is slow so do it for a group of four digits instead
+        // of for every digit. The idea comes from the talk by Alexandrescu
+        // "Three Optimization Tips for C++". See speed-test for a comparison.
+        if (n < 10) return count;
+        if (n < 100) return count + 1;
+        if (n < 1000) return count + 2;
+        if (n < 10000) return count + 3;
+        n /= 10000u;
+        count += 4;
+    }
+}
+#endif
+
+#ifdef FMT_BUILTIN_CLZ
+// Optional version of count_digits for better performance on 32-bit platforms.
+inline unsigned count_digits(uint32_t n) {
+    uint32_t t = (32 - FMT_BUILTIN_CLZ(n | 1)) * 1233 >> 12;
+    return t - (n < Data::POWERS_OF_10_32[t]) + 1;
+}
+#endif
+
+// Formats a decimal unsigned integer value writing into buffer.
+template <typename UInt, typename Char>
+inline void format_decimal(Char *buffer, UInt value, unsigned num_digits) {
+    --num_digits;
+    while (value >= 100) {
+        // Integer division is slow so do it for a group of two digits instead
+        // of for every digit. The idea comes from the talk by Alexandrescu
+        // "Three Optimization Tips for C++". See speed-test for a comparison.
+        unsigned index = (value % 100) * 2;
+        value /= 100;
+        buffer[num_digits] = Data::DIGITS[index + 1];
+        buffer[num_digits - 1] = Data::DIGITS[index];
+        num_digits -= 2;
+    }
+    if (value < 10) {
+        *buffer = static_cast<char>('0' + value);
+        return;
+    }
+    unsigned index = static_cast<unsigned>(value * 2);
+    buffer[1] = Data::DIGITS[index + 1];
+    buffer[0] = Data::DIGITS[index];
+}
+
+#ifndef _WIN32
+# define FMT_USE_WINDOWS_H 0
+#elif !defined(FMT_USE_WINDOWS_H)
+# define FMT_USE_WINDOWS_H 1
+#endif
+
+// Define FMT_USE_WINDOWS_H to 0 to disable use of windows.h.
+// All the functionality that relies on it will be disabled too.
+#if FMT_USE_WINDOWS_H
+// A converter from UTF-8 to UTF-16.
+// It is only provided for Windows since other systems support UTF-8 natively.
+class UTF8ToUTF16 {
+private:
+    MemoryBuffer<wchar_t, INLINE_BUFFER_SIZE> buffer_;
+
+public:
+    explicit UTF8ToUTF16(StringRef s);
+    operator WStringRef() const {
+        return WStringRef(&buffer_[0], size());
+    }
+    size_t size() const {
+        return buffer_.size() - 1;
+    }
+    const wchar_t *c_str() const {
+        return &buffer_[0];
+    }
+    std::wstring str() const {
+        return std::wstring(&buffer_[0], size());
+    }
+};
+
+// A converter from UTF-16 to UTF-8.
+// It is only provided for Windows since other systems support UTF-8 natively.
+class UTF16ToUTF8 {
+private:
+    MemoryBuffer<char, INLINE_BUFFER_SIZE> buffer_;
+
+public:
+    UTF16ToUTF8() {}
+    explicit UTF16ToUTF8(WStringRef s);
+    operator StringRef() const {
+        return StringRef(&buffer_[0], size());
+    }
+    size_t size() const {
+        return buffer_.size() - 1;
+    }
+    const char *c_str() const {
+        return &buffer_[0];
+    }
+    std::string str() const {
+        return std::string(&buffer_[0], size());
+    }
+
+    // Performs conversion returning a system error code instead of
+    // throwing exception on conversion error. This method may still throw
+    // in case of memory allocation error.
+    int convert(WStringRef s);
+};
+
+void format_windows_error(fmt::Writer &out, int error_code,
+                          fmt::StringRef message) FMT_NOEXCEPT;
+#endif
+
+void format_system_error(fmt::Writer &out, int error_code,
+                         fmt::StringRef message) FMT_NOEXCEPT;
+
+// A formatting argument value.
+struct Value {
+    template <typename Char>
+    struct StringValue {
+        const Char *value;
+        std::size_t size;
+    };
+
+    typedef void(*FormatFunc)(
+        void *formatter, const void *arg, void *format_str_ptr);
+
+    struct CustomValue {
+        const void *value;
+        FormatFunc format;
+    };
+
+    union {
+        int int_value;
+        unsigned uint_value;
+        LongLong long_long_value;
+        ULongLong ulong_long_value;
+        double double_value;
+        long double long_double_value;
+        const void *pointer;
+        StringValue<char> string;
+        StringValue<signed char> sstring;
+        StringValue<unsigned char> ustring;
+        StringValue<wchar_t> wstring;
+        CustomValue custom;
+    };
+
+    enum Type {
+        NONE, NAMED_ARG,
+        // Integer types should go first,
+        INT, UINT, LONG_LONG, ULONG_LONG, BOOL, CHAR, LAST_INTEGER_TYPE = CHAR,
+        // followed by floating-point types.
+        DOUBLE, LONG_DOUBLE, LAST_NUMERIC_TYPE = LONG_DOUBLE,
+        CSTRING, STRING, WSTRING, POINTER, CUSTOM
+    };
+};
+
+// A formatting argument. It is a POD type to allow storage in
+// internal::MemoryBuffer.
+struct Arg : Value {
+    Type type;
+};
+
+template <typename Char>
+struct NamedArg;
+
+template <typename T = void>
+struct Null {};
+
+// A helper class template to enable or disable overloads taking wide
+// characters and strings in MakeValue.
+template <typename T, typename Char>
+struct WCharHelper {
+    typedef Null<T> Supported;
+    typedef T Unsupported;
+};
+
+template <typename T>
+struct WCharHelper<T, wchar_t> {
+    typedef T Supported;
+    typedef Null<T> Unsupported;
+};
+
+template <typename T>
+class IsConvertibleToInt {
+private:
+    typedef char yes[1];
+    typedef char no[2];
+
+    static const T &get();
+
+    static yes &check(fmt::ULongLong);
+    static no &check(...);
+
+public:
+    enum { value = (sizeof(check(get())) == sizeof(yes)) };
+};
+
+#define FMT_CONVERTIBLE_TO_INT(Type) \
+  template <> \
+  class IsConvertibleToInt<Type> { \
+   public: \
+    enum { value = 1 }; \
+          }
+
+// Silence warnings about convering float to int.
+FMT_CONVERTIBLE_TO_INT(float);
+FMT_CONVERTIBLE_TO_INT(double);
+FMT_CONVERTIBLE_TO_INT(long double);
+
+template<bool B, class T = void>
+struct EnableIf {};
+
+template<class T>
+struct EnableIf<true, T> {
+    typedef T type;
+};
+
+template<bool B, class T, class F>
+struct Conditional {
+    typedef T type;
+};
+
+template<class T, class F>
+struct Conditional<false, T, F> {
+    typedef F type;
+};
+
+// A helper function to suppress bogus "conditional expression is constant"
+// warnings.
+inline bool check(bool value) {
+    return value;
+}
+
+// Makes an Arg object from any type.
+template <typename Char>
+class MakeValue : public Arg {
+private:
+    // The following two methods are private to disallow formatting of
+    // arbitrary pointers. If you want to output a pointer cast it to
+    // "void *" or "const void *". In particular, this forbids formatting
+    // of "[const] volatile char *" which is printed as bool by iostreams.
+    // Do not implement!
+    template <typename T>
+    MakeValue(const T *value);
+    template <typename T>
+    MakeValue(T *value);
+
+    // The following methods are private to disallow formatting of wide
+    // characters and strings into narrow strings as in
+    //   fmt::format("{}", L"test");
+    // To fix this, use a wide format string: fmt::format(L"{}", L"test").
+    MakeValue(typename WCharHelper<wchar_t, Char>::Unsupported);
+    MakeValue(typename WCharHelper<wchar_t *, Char>::Unsupported);
+    MakeValue(typename WCharHelper<const wchar_t *, Char>::Unsupported);
+    MakeValue(typename WCharHelper<const std::wstring &, Char>::Unsupported);
+    MakeValue(typename WCharHelper<WStringRef, Char>::Unsupported);
+
+    void set_string(StringRef str) {
+        string.value = str.data();
+        string.size = str.size();
+    }
+
+    void set_string(WStringRef str) {
+        wstring.value = str.data();
+        wstring.size = str.size();
+    }
+
+    // Formats an argument of a custom type, such as a user-defined class.
+    template <typename T>
+    static void format_custom_arg(
+        void *formatter, const void *arg, void *format_str_ptr) {
+        format(*static_cast<BasicFormatter<Char>*>(formatter),
+               *static_cast<const Char**>(format_str_ptr),
+               *static_cast<const T*>(arg));
+    }
+
+public:
+    MakeValue() {}
+
+#define FMT_MAKE_VALUE_(Type, field, TYPE, rhs) \
+  MakeValue(Type value) { field = rhs; } \
+  static uint64_t type(Type) { return Arg::TYPE; }
+
+#define FMT_MAKE_VALUE(Type, field, TYPE) \
+  FMT_MAKE_VALUE_(Type, field, TYPE, value)
+
+    FMT_MAKE_VALUE(bool, int_value, BOOL)
+    FMT_MAKE_VALUE(short, int_value, INT)
+    FMT_MAKE_VALUE(unsigned short, uint_value, UINT)
+    FMT_MAKE_VALUE(int, int_value, INT)
+    FMT_MAKE_VALUE(unsigned, uint_value, UINT)
+
+    MakeValue(long value) {
+        // To minimize the number of types we need to deal with, long is
+        // translated either to int or to long long depending on its size.
+        if (check(sizeof(long) == sizeof(int)))
+            int_value = static_cast<int>(value);
+        else
+            long_long_value = value;
+    }
+    static uint64_t type(long) {
+        return sizeof(long) == sizeof(int) ? Arg::INT : Arg::LONG_LONG;
+    }
+
+    MakeValue(unsigned long value) {
+        if (check(sizeof(unsigned long) == sizeof(unsigned)))
+            uint_value = static_cast<unsigned>(value);
+        else
+            ulong_long_value = value;
+    }
+    static uint64_t type(unsigned long) {
+        return sizeof(unsigned long) == sizeof(unsigned) ?
+               Arg::UINT : Arg::ULONG_LONG;
+    }
+
+    FMT_MAKE_VALUE(LongLong, long_long_value, LONG_LONG)
+    FMT_MAKE_VALUE(ULongLong, ulong_long_value, ULONG_LONG)
+    FMT_MAKE_VALUE(float, double_value, DOUBLE)
+    FMT_MAKE_VALUE(double, double_value, DOUBLE)
+    FMT_MAKE_VALUE(long double, long_double_value, LONG_DOUBLE)
+    FMT_MAKE_VALUE(signed char, int_value, CHAR)
+    FMT_MAKE_VALUE(unsigned char, int_value, CHAR)
+    FMT_MAKE_VALUE(char, int_value, CHAR)
+
+    MakeValue(typename WCharHelper<wchar_t, Char>::Supported value) {
+        int_value = value;
+    }
+    static uint64_t type(wchar_t) {
+        return Arg::CHAR;
+    }
+
+#define FMT_MAKE_STR_VALUE(Type, TYPE) \
+  MakeValue(Type value) { set_string(value); } \
+  static uint64_t type(Type) { return Arg::TYPE; }
+
+    FMT_MAKE_VALUE(char *, string.value, CSTRING)
+    FMT_MAKE_VALUE(const char *, string.value, CSTRING)
+    FMT_MAKE_VALUE(const signed char *, sstring.value, CSTRING)
+    FMT_MAKE_VALUE(const unsigned char *, ustring.value, CSTRING)
+    FMT_MAKE_STR_VALUE(const std::string &, STRING)
+    FMT_MAKE_STR_VALUE(StringRef, STRING)
+    FMT_MAKE_VALUE_(CStringRef, string.value, CSTRING, value.c_str())
+
+#define FMT_MAKE_WSTR_VALUE(Type, TYPE) \
+  MakeValue(typename WCharHelper<Type, Char>::Supported value) { \
+    set_string(value); \
+              } \
+  static uint64_t type(Type) { return Arg::TYPE; }
+
+    FMT_MAKE_WSTR_VALUE(wchar_t *, WSTRING)
+    FMT_MAKE_WSTR_VALUE(const wchar_t *, WSTRING)
+    FMT_MAKE_WSTR_VALUE(const std::wstring &, WSTRING)
+    FMT_MAKE_WSTR_VALUE(WStringRef, WSTRING)
+
+    FMT_MAKE_VALUE(void *, pointer, POINTER)
+    FMT_MAKE_VALUE(const void *, pointer, POINTER)
+
+    template <typename T>
+    MakeValue(const T &value,
+              typename EnableIf<!IsConvertibleToInt<T>::value, int>::type = 0) 
{
+        custom.value = &value;
+        custom.format = &format_custom_arg<T>;
+    }
+
+    template <typename T>
+    MakeValue(const T &value,
+              typename EnableIf<IsConvertibleToInt<T>::value, int>::type = 0) {
+        int_value = value;
+    }
+
+    template <typename T>
+    static uint64_t type(const T &) {
+        return IsConvertibleToInt<T>::value ? Arg::INT : Arg::CUSTOM;
+    }
+
+    // Additional template param `Char_` is needed here because make_type 
always
+    // uses MakeValue<char>.
+    template <typename Char_>
+    MakeValue(const NamedArg<Char_> &value) {
+        pointer = &value;
+    }
+
+    template <typename Char_>
+    static uint64_t type(const NamedArg<Char_> &) {
+        return Arg::NAMED_ARG;
+    }
+};
+
+template <typename Char>
+struct NamedArg : Arg {
+    BasicStringRef<Char> name;
+
+    template <typename T>
+    NamedArg(BasicStringRef<Char> name, const T &value)
+        : name(name), Arg(MakeValue<Char>(value)) {
+        type = static_cast<internal::Arg::Type>(MakeValue<Char>::type(value));
+    }
+};
+
+#define FMT_DISPATCH(call) static_cast<Impl*>(this)->call
+
+// An argument visitor.
+// To use ArgVisitor define a subclass that implements some or all of the
+// visit methods with the same signatures as the methods in ArgVisitor,
+// for example, visit_int(int).
+// Specify the subclass name as the Impl template parameter. Then calling
+// ArgVisitor::visit for some argument will dispatch to a visit method
+// specific to the argument type. For example, if the argument type is
+// double then visit_double(double) method of a subclass will be called.
+// If the subclass doesn't contain a method with this signature, then
+// a corresponding method of ArgVisitor will be called.
+//
+// Example:
+//  class MyArgVisitor : public ArgVisitor<MyArgVisitor, void> {
+//   public:
+//    void visit_int(int value) { print("{}", value); }
+//    void visit_double(double value) { print("{}", value ); }
+//  };
+//
+// ArgVisitor uses the curiously recurring template pattern:
+// http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curiously_recurring_template_pattern
+template <typename Impl, typename Result>
+class ArgVisitor {
+public:
+    void report_unhandled_arg() {}
+
+    Result visit_unhandled_arg() {
+        FMT_DISPATCH(report_unhandled_arg());
+        return Result();
+    }
+
+    Result visit_int(int value) {
+        return FMT_DISPATCH(visit_any_int(value));
+    }
+    Result visit_long_long(LongLong value) {
+        return FMT_DISPATCH(visit_any_int(value));
+    }
+    Result visit_uint(unsigned value) {
+        return FMT_DISPATCH(visit_any_int(value));
+    }
+    Result visit_ulong_long(ULongLong value) {
+        return FMT_DISPATCH(visit_any_int(value));
+    }
+    Result visit_bool(bool value) {
+        return FMT_DISPATCH(visit_any_int(value));
+    }
+    Result visit_char(int value) {
+        return FMT_DISPATCH(visit_any_int(value));
+    }
+    template <typename T>
+    Result visit_any_int(T) {
+        return FMT_DISPATCH(visit_unhandled_arg());
+    }
+
+    Result visit_double(double value) {
+        return FMT_DISPATCH(visit_any_double(value));
+    }
+    Result visit_long_double(long double value) {
+        return FMT_DISPATCH(visit_any_double(value));
+    }
+    template <typename T>
+    Result visit_any_double(T) {
+        return FMT_DISPATCH(visit_unhandled_arg());
+    }
+
+    Result visit_string(Arg::StringValue<char>) {
+        return FMT_DISPATCH(visit_unhandled_arg());
+    }
+    Result visit_wstring(Arg::StringValue<wchar_t>) {
+        return FMT_DISPATCH(visit_unhandled_arg());
+    }
+    Result visit_pointer(const void *) {
+        return FMT_DISPATCH(visit_unhandled_arg());
+    }
+    Result visit_custom(Arg::CustomValue) {
+        return FMT_DISPATCH(visit_unhandled_arg());
+    }
+
+    Result visit(const Arg &arg) {
+        switch (arg.type) {
+        default:
+            FMT_ASSERT(false, "invalid argument type");
+            return Result();
+        case Arg::INT:
+            return FMT_DISPATCH(visit_int(arg.int_value));
+        case Arg::UINT:
+            return FMT_DISPATCH(visit_uint(arg.uint_value));
+        case Arg::LONG_LONG:
+            return FMT_DISPATCH(visit_long_long(arg.long_long_value));
+        case Arg::ULONG_LONG:
+            return FMT_DISPATCH(visit_ulong_long(arg.ulong_long_value));
+        case Arg::BOOL:
+            return FMT_DISPATCH(visit_bool(arg.int_value != 0));
+        case Arg::CHAR:
+            return FMT_DISPATCH(visit_char(arg.int_value));
+        case Arg::DOUBLE:
+            return FMT_DISPATCH(visit_double(arg.double_value));
+        case Arg::LONG_DOUBLE:
+            return FMT_DISPATCH(visit_long_double(arg.long_double_value));
+        case Arg::CSTRING: {
+            Arg::StringValue<char> str = arg.string;
+            str.size = 0;
+            return FMT_DISPATCH(visit_string(str));
+        }
+        case Arg::STRING:
+            return FMT_DISPATCH(visit_string(arg.string));
+        case Arg::WSTRING:
+            return FMT_DISPATCH(visit_wstring(arg.wstring));
+        case Arg::POINTER:
+            return FMT_DISPATCH(visit_pointer(arg.pointer));
+        case Arg::CUSTOM:
+            return FMT_DISPATCH(visit_custom(arg.custom));
+        }
+    }
+};
+
+class RuntimeError : public std::runtime_error {
+protected:
+    RuntimeError() : std::runtime_error("") {}
+};
+
+template <typename Impl, typename Char>
+class BasicArgFormatter;
+
+template <typename Char>
+class PrintfArgFormatter;
+
+template <typename Char>
+class ArgMap;
+}  // namespace internal
+
+/** An argument list. */
+class ArgList {
+private:
+    // To reduce compiled code size per formatting function call, types of 
first
+    // MAX_PACKED_ARGS arguments are passed in the types_ field.
+    uint64_t types_;
+    union {
+        // If the number of arguments is less than MAX_PACKED_ARGS, the 
argument
+        // values are stored in values_, otherwise they are stored in args_.
+        // This is done to reduce compiled code size as storing larger objects
+        // may require more code (at least on x86-64) even if the same amount 
of
+        // data is actually copied to stack. It saves ~10% on the bloat test.
+        const internal::Value *values_;
+        const internal::Arg *args_;
+    };
+
+    internal::Arg::Type type(unsigned index) const {
+        unsigned shift = index * 4;
+        uint64_t mask = 0xf;
+        return static_cast<internal::Arg::Type>(
+                   (types_ & (mask << shift)) >> shift);
+    }
+
+    template <typename Char>
+    friend class internal::ArgMap;
+
+public:
+    // Maximum number of arguments with packed types.
+    enum { MAX_PACKED_ARGS = 16 };
+
+    ArgList() : types_(0) {}
+
+    ArgList(ULongLong types, const internal::Value *values)
+        : types_(types), values_(values) {}
+    ArgList(ULongLong types, const internal::Arg *args)
+        : types_(types), args_(args) {}
+
+    /** Returns the argument at specified index. */
+    internal::Arg operator[](unsigned index) const {
+        using internal::Arg;
+        Arg arg;
+        bool use_values = type(MAX_PACKED_ARGS - 1) == Arg::NONE;
+        if (index < MAX_PACKED_ARGS) {
+            Arg::Type arg_type = type(index);
+            internal::Value &val = arg;
+            if (arg_type != Arg::NONE)
+                val = use_values ? values_[index] : args_[index];
+            arg.type = arg_type;
+            return arg;
+        }
+        if (use_values) {
+            // The index is greater than the number of arguments that can be 
stored
+            // in values, so return a "none" argument.
+            arg.type = Arg::NONE;
+            return arg;
+        }
+        for (unsigned i = MAX_PACKED_ARGS; i <= index; ++i) {
+            if (args_[i].type == Arg::NONE)
+                return args_[i];
+        }
+        return args_[index];
+    }
+};
+
+struct FormatSpec;
+
+namespace internal {
+
+template <typename Char>
+class ArgMap {
+private:
+    typedef std::map<fmt::BasicStringRef<Char>, internal::Arg> MapType;
+    typedef typename MapType::value_type Pair;
+
+    MapType map_;
+
+public:
+    void init(const ArgList &args);
+
+    const internal::Arg* find(const fmt::BasicStringRef<Char> &name) const {
+        typename MapType::const_iterator it = map_.find(name);
+        return it != map_.end() ? &it->second : 0;
+    }
+};
+
+class FormatterBase {
+private:
+    ArgList args_;
+    int next_arg_index_;
+
+    // Returns the argument with specified index.
+    Arg do_get_arg(unsigned arg_index, const char *&error);
+
+protected:
+    const ArgList &args() const {
+        return args_;
+    }
+
+    void set_args(const ArgList &args) {
+        args_ = args;
+        next_arg_index_ = 0;
+    }
+
+    // Returns the next argument.
+    Arg next_arg(const char *&error);
+
+    // Checks if manual indexing is used and returns the argument with
+    // specified index.
+    Arg get_arg(unsigned arg_index, const char *&error);
+
+    bool check_no_auto_index(const char *&error);
+
+    template <typename Char>
+    void write(BasicWriter<Char> &w, const Char *start, const Char *end) {
+        if (start != end)
+            w << BasicStringRef<Char>(start, end - start);
+    }
+};
+
+// A printf formatter.
+template <typename Char>
+class PrintfFormatter : private FormatterBase {
+private:
+    void parse_flags(FormatSpec &spec, const Char *&s);
+
+    // Returns the argument with specified index or, if arg_index is equal
+    // to the maximum unsigned value, the next argument.
+    Arg get_arg(const Char *s,
+                unsigned arg_index = (std::numeric_limits<unsigned>::max)());
+
+    // Parses argument index, flags and width and returns the argument index.
+    unsigned parse_header(const Char *&s, FormatSpec &spec);
+
+public:
+    void format(BasicWriter<Char> &writer,
+                BasicCStringRef<Char> format_str, const ArgList &args);
+};
+}  // namespace internal
+
+// A formatter.
+template <typename Char>
+class BasicFormatter : private internal::FormatterBase {
+private:
+    BasicWriter<Char> &writer_;
+    const Char *start_;
+    internal::ArgMap<Char> map_;
+
+    FMT_DISALLOW_COPY_AND_ASSIGN(BasicFormatter);
+
+    using FormatterBase::get_arg;
+
+    // Checks if manual indexing is used and returns the argument with
+    // specified name.
+    internal::Arg get_arg(BasicStringRef<Char> arg_name, const char *&error);
+
+    // Parses argument index and returns corresponding argument.
+    internal::Arg parse_arg_index(const Char *&s);
+
+    // Parses argument name and returns corresponding argument.
+    internal::Arg parse_arg_name(const Char *&s);
+
+public:
+    explicit BasicFormatter(BasicWriter<Char> &w) : writer_(w) {}
+
+    BasicWriter<Char> &writer() {
+        return writer_;
+    }
+
+    void format(BasicCStringRef<Char> format_str, const ArgList &args);
+
+    const Char *format(const Char *&format_str, const internal::Arg &arg);
+};
+
+enum Alignment {
+    ALIGN_DEFAULT, ALIGN_LEFT, ALIGN_RIGHT, ALIGN_CENTER, ALIGN_NUMERIC
+};
+
+// Flags.
+enum {
+    SIGN_FLAG = 1, PLUS_FLAG = 2, MINUS_FLAG = 4, HASH_FLAG = 8,
+    CHAR_FLAG = 0x10  // Argument has char type - used in error reporting.
+};
+
+// An empty format specifier.
+struct EmptySpec {};
+
+// A type specifier.
+template <char TYPE>
+struct TypeSpec : EmptySpec {
+    Alignment align() const {
+        return ALIGN_DEFAULT;
+    }
+    unsigned width() const {
+        return 0;
+    }
+    int precision() const {
+        return -1;
+    }
+    bool flag(unsigned) const {
+        return false;
+    }
+    char type() const {
+        return TYPE;
+    }
+    char fill() const {
+        return ' ';
+    }
+};
+
+// A width specifier.
+struct WidthSpec {
+    unsigned width_;
+    // Fill is always wchar_t and cast to char if necessary to avoid having
+    // two specialization of WidthSpec and its subclasses.
+    wchar_t fill_;
+
+    WidthSpec(unsigned width, wchar_t fill) : width_(width), fill_(fill) {}
+
+    unsigned width() const {
+        return width_;
+    }
+    wchar_t fill() const {
+        return fill_;
+    }
+};
+
+// An alignment specifier.
+struct AlignSpec : WidthSpec {
+    Alignment align_;
+
+    AlignSpec(unsigned width, wchar_t fill, Alignment align = ALIGN_DEFAULT)
+        : WidthSpec(width, fill), align_(align) {}
+
+    Alignment align() const {
+        return align_;
+    }
+
+    int precision() const {
+        return -1;
+    }
+};
+
+// An alignment and type specifier.
+template <char TYPE>
+struct AlignTypeSpec : AlignSpec {
+    AlignTypeSpec(unsigned width, wchar_t fill) : AlignSpec(width, fill) {}
+
+    bool flag(unsigned) const {
+        return false;
+    }
+    char type() const {
+        return TYPE;
+    }
+};
+
+// A full format specifier.
+struct FormatSpec : AlignSpec {
+    unsigned flags_;
+    int precision_;
+    char type_;
+
+    FormatSpec(
+        unsigned width = 0, char type = 0, wchar_t fill = ' ')
+        : AlignSpec(width, fill), flags_(0), precision_(-1), type_(type) {}
+
+    bool flag(unsigned f) const {
+        return (flags_ & f) != 0;
+    }
+    int precision() const {
+        return precision_;
+    }
+    char type() const {
+        return type_;
+    }
+};
+
+// An integer format specifier.
+template <typename T, typename SpecT = TypeSpec<0>, typename Char = char>
+class IntFormatSpec : public SpecT {
+private:
+    T value_;
+
+public:
+    IntFormatSpec(T val, const SpecT &spec = SpecT())
+        : SpecT(spec), value_(val) {}
+
+    T value() const {
+        return value_;
+    }
+};
+
+// A string format specifier.
+template <typename Char>
+class StrFormatSpec : public AlignSpec {
+private:
+    const Char *str_;
+
+public:
+    template <typename FillChar>
+    StrFormatSpec(const Char *str, unsigned width, FillChar fill)
+        : AlignSpec(width, fill), str_(str) {
+        internal::CharTraits<Char>::convert(FillChar());
+    }
+
+    const Char *str() const {
+        return str_;
+    }
+};
+
+/**
+Returns an integer format specifier to format the value in base 2.
+*/
+IntFormatSpec<int, TypeSpec<'b'> > bin(int value);
+
+/**
+Returns an integer format specifier to format the value in base 8.
+*/
+IntFormatSpec<int, TypeSpec<'o'> > oct(int value);
+
+/**
+Returns an integer format specifier to format the value in base 16 using
+lower-case letters for the digits above 9.
+*/
+IntFormatSpec<int, TypeSpec<'x'> > hex(int value);
+
+/**
+Returns an integer formatter format specifier to format in base 16 using
+upper-case letters for the digits above 9.
+*/
+IntFormatSpec<int, TypeSpec<'X'> > hexu(int value);
+
+/**
+\rst
+Returns an integer format specifier to pad the formatted argument with the
+fill character to the specified width using the default (right) numeric
+alignment.
+
+**Example**::
+
+MemoryWriter out;
+out << pad(hex(0xcafe), 8, '0');
+// out.str() == "0000cafe"
+
+\endrst
+*/
+template <char TYPE_CODE, typename Char>
+IntFormatSpec<int, AlignTypeSpec<TYPE_CODE>, Char> pad(
+    int value, unsigned width, Char fill = ' ');
+
+#define FMT_DEFINE_INT_FORMATTERS(TYPE) \
+inline IntFormatSpec<TYPE, TypeSpec<'b'> > bin(TYPE value) { \
+  return IntFormatSpec<TYPE, TypeSpec<'b'> >(value, TypeSpec<'b'>()); \
+    } \
+ \
+inline IntFormatSpec<TYPE, TypeSpec<'o'> > oct(TYPE value) { \
+  return IntFormatSpec<TYPE, TypeSpec<'o'> >(value, TypeSpec<'o'>()); \
+    } \
+ \
+inline IntFormatSpec<TYPE, TypeSpec<'x'> > hex(TYPE value) { \
+  return IntFormatSpec<TYPE, TypeSpec<'x'> >(value, TypeSpec<'x'>()); \
+    } \
+ \
+inline IntFormatSpec<TYPE, TypeSpec<'X'> > hexu(TYPE value) { \
+  return IntFormatSpec<TYPE, TypeSpec<'X'> >(value, TypeSpec<'X'>()); \
+    } \
+ \
+template <char TYPE_CODE> \
+inline IntFormatSpec<TYPE, AlignTypeSpec<TYPE_CODE> > pad( \
+    IntFormatSpec<TYPE, TypeSpec<TYPE_CODE> > f, unsigned width) { \
+  return IntFormatSpec<TYPE, AlignTypeSpec<TYPE_CODE> >( \
+      f.value(), AlignTypeSpec<TYPE_CODE>(width, ' ')); \
+    } \
+ \
+/* For compatibility with older compilers we provide two overloads for pad, */ 
\
+/* one that takes a fill character and one that doesn't. In the future this */ 
\
+/* can be replaced with one overload making the template argument Char      */ 
\
+/* default to char (C++11). */ \
+template <char TYPE_CODE, typename Char> \
+inline IntFormatSpec<TYPE, AlignTypeSpec<TYPE_CODE>, Char> pad( \
+    IntFormatSpec<TYPE, TypeSpec<TYPE_CODE>, Char> f, \
+    unsigned width, Char fill) { \
+  return IntFormatSpec<TYPE, AlignTypeSpec<TYPE_CODE>, Char>( \
+      f.value(), AlignTypeSpec<TYPE_CODE>(width, fill)); \
+    } \
+ \
+inline IntFormatSpec<TYPE, AlignTypeSpec<0> > pad( \
+    TYPE value, unsigned width) { \
+  return IntFormatSpec<TYPE, AlignTypeSpec<0> >( \
+      value, AlignTypeSpec<0>(width, ' ')); \
+    } \
+ \
+template <typename Char> \
+inline IntFormatSpec<TYPE, AlignTypeSpec<0>, Char> pad( \
+   TYPE value, unsigned width, Char fill) { \
+ return IntFormatSpec<TYPE, AlignTypeSpec<0>, Char>( \
+     value, AlignTypeSpec<0>(width, fill)); \
+    }
+
+FMT_DEFINE_INT_FORMATTERS(int)
+FMT_DEFINE_INT_FORMATTERS(long)
+FMT_DEFINE_INT_FORMATTERS(unsigned)
+FMT_DEFINE_INT_FORMATTERS(unsigned long)
+FMT_DEFINE_INT_FORMATTERS(LongLong)
+FMT_DEFINE_INT_FORMATTERS(ULongLong)
+
+/**
+\rst
+Returns a string formatter that pads the formatted argument with the fill
+character to the specified width using the default (left) string alignment.
+
+**Example**::
+
+std::string s = str(MemoryWriter() << pad("abc", 8));
+// s == "abc     "
+
+\endrst
+*/
+template <typename Char>
+inline StrFormatSpec<Char> pad(
+    const Char *str, unsigned width, Char fill = ' ') {
+    return StrFormatSpec<Char>(str, width, fill);
+}
+
+inline StrFormatSpec<wchar_t> pad(
+    const wchar_t *str, unsigned width, char fill = ' ') {
+    return StrFormatSpec<wchar_t>(str, width, fill);
+}
+
+// Generates a comma-separated list with results of applying f to
+// numbers 0..n-1.
+# define FMT_GEN(n, f) FMT_GEN##n(f)
+# define FMT_GEN1(f)  f(0)
+# define FMT_GEN2(f)  FMT_GEN1(f),  f(1)
+# define FMT_GEN3(f)  FMT_GEN2(f),  f(2)
+# define FMT_GEN4(f)  FMT_GEN3(f),  f(3)
+# define FMT_GEN5(f)  FMT_GEN4(f),  f(4)
+# define FMT_GEN6(f)  FMT_GEN5(f),  f(5)
+# define FMT_GEN7(f)  FMT_GEN6(f),  f(6)
+# define FMT_GEN8(f)  FMT_GEN7(f),  f(7)
+# define FMT_GEN9(f)  FMT_GEN8(f),  f(8)
+# define FMT_GEN10(f) FMT_GEN9(f),  f(9)
+# define FMT_GEN11(f) FMT_GEN10(f), f(10)
+# define FMT_GEN12(f) FMT_GEN11(f), f(11)
+# define FMT_GEN13(f) FMT_GEN12(f), f(12)
+# define FMT_GEN14(f) FMT_GEN13(f), f(13)
+# define FMT_GEN15(f) FMT_GEN14(f), f(14)
+
+namespace internal {
+inline uint64_t make_type() {
+    return 0;
+}
+
+template <typename T>
+inline uint64_t make_type(const T &arg) {
+    return MakeValue<char>::type(arg);
+}
+
+template <unsigned N>
+struct ArgArray {
+    // Computes the argument array size by adding 1 to N, which is the number 
of
+    // arguments, if N is zero, because array of zero size is invalid, or if N
+    // is greater than ArgList::MAX_PACKED_ARGS to accommodate for an extra
+    // argument that marks the end of the list.
+    enum { SIZE = N + (N == 0 || N >= ArgList::MAX_PACKED_ARGS ? 1 : 0) };
+
+    typedef typename Conditional<
+    (N < ArgList::MAX_PACKED_ARGS), Value, Arg>::type Type[SIZE];
+};
+
+#if FMT_USE_VARIADIC_TEMPLATES
+template <typename Arg, typename... Args>
+inline uint64_t make_type(const Arg &first, const Args & ... tail) {
+    return make_type(first) | (make_type(tail...) << 4);
+}
+
+inline void do_set_types(Arg *) {}
+
+template <typename T, typename... Args>
+inline void do_set_types(Arg *args, const T &arg, const Args & ... tail) {
+    args->type = static_cast<Arg::Type>(MakeValue<T>::type(arg));
+    do_set_types(args + 1, tail...);
+}
+
+template <typename... Args>
+inline void set_types(Arg *array, const Args & ... args) {
+    if (check(sizeof...(Args) > ArgList::MAX_PACKED_ARGS))
+        do_set_types(array, args...);
+    array[sizeof...(Args)].type = Arg::NONE;
+}
+
+template <typename... Args>
+inline void set_types(Value *, const Args & ...) {
+    // Do nothing as types are passed separately from values.
+}
+
+template <typename Char, typename Value>
+inline void store_args(Value *) {}
+
+template <typename Char, typename Arg, typename T, typename... Args>
+inline void store_args(Arg *args, const T &arg, const Args & ... tail) {
+    // Assign only the Value subobject of Arg and don't overwrite type (if any)
+    // that is assigned by set_types.
+    Value &value = *args;
+    value = MakeValue<Char>(arg);
+    store_args<Char>(args + 1, tail...);
+}
+
+template <typename Char, typename... Args>
+ArgList make_arg_list(typename ArgArray<sizeof...(Args)>::Type array,
+                      const Args & ... args) {
+    if (check(sizeof...(Args) >= ArgList::MAX_PACKED_ARGS))
+        set_types(array, args...);
+    store_args<Char>(array, args...);
+    return ArgList(make_type(args...), array);
+}
+#else
+
+struct ArgType {
+    uint64_t type;
+
+    ArgType() : type(0) {}
+
+    template <typename T>
+    ArgType(const T &arg) : type(make_type(arg)) {}
+};
+
+# define FMT_ARG_TYPE_DEFAULT(n) ArgType t##n = ArgType()
+
+inline uint64_t make_type(FMT_GEN15(FMT_ARG_TYPE_DEFAULT)) {
+    return t0.type | (t1.type << 4) | (t2.type << 8) | (t3.type << 12) |
+           (t4.type << 16) | (t5.type << 20) | (t6.type << 24) | (t7.type << 
28) |
+           (t8.type << 32) | (t9.type << 36) | (t10.type << 40) | (t11.type << 
44) |
+           (t12.type << 48) | (t13.type << 52) | (t14.type << 56);
+}
+#endif
+}  // namespace internal
+
+# define FMT_MAKE_TEMPLATE_ARG(n) typename T##n
+# define FMT_MAKE_ARG_TYPE(n) T##n
+# define FMT_MAKE_ARG(n) const T##n &v##n
+# define FMT_MAKE_REF_char(n) fmt::internal::MakeValue<char>(v##n)
+# define FMT_MAKE_REF_wchar_t(n) fmt::internal::MakeValue<wchar_t>(v##n)
+
+#if FMT_USE_VARIADIC_TEMPLATES
+// Defines a variadic function returning void.
+# define FMT_VARIADIC_VOID(func, arg_type) \
+  template <typename... Args> \
+  void func(arg_type arg0, const Args & ... args) { \
+    typename fmt::internal::ArgArray<sizeof...(Args)>::Type array; \
+    func(arg0, fmt::internal::make_arg_list<Char>(array, args...)); \
+      }
+
+// Defines a variadic constructor.
+# define FMT_VARIADIC_CTOR(ctor, func, arg0_type, arg1_type) \
+  template <typename... Args> \
+  ctor(arg0_type arg0, arg1_type arg1, const Args & ... args) { \
+    typename fmt::internal::ArgArray<sizeof...(Args)>::Type array; \
+    func(arg0, arg1, fmt::internal::make_arg_list<Char>(array, args...)); \
+      }
+
+#else
+
+# define FMT_MAKE_REF(n) fmt::internal::MakeValue<Char>(v##n)
+# define FMT_MAKE_REF2(n) v##n
+
+// Defines a wrapper for a function taking one argument of type arg_type
+// and n additional arguments of arbitrary types.
+# define FMT_WRAP1(func, arg_type, n) \
+  template <FMT_GEN(n, FMT_MAKE_TEMPLATE_ARG)> \
+  inline void func(arg_type arg1, FMT_GEN(n, FMT_MAKE_ARG)) { \
+    const fmt::internal::ArgArray<n>::Type array = {FMT_GEN(n, FMT_MAKE_REF)}; 
\
+    func(arg1, fmt::ArgList( \
+      fmt::internal::make_type(FMT_GEN(n, FMT_MAKE_REF2)), array)); \
+      }
+
+// Emulates a variadic function returning void on a pre-C++11 compiler.
+# define FMT_VARIADIC_VOID(func, arg_type) \
+  inline void func(arg_type arg) { func(arg, fmt::ArgList()); } \
+  FMT_WRAP1(func, arg_type, 1) FMT_WRAP1(func, arg_type, 2) \
+  FMT_WRAP1(func, arg_type, 3) FMT_WRAP1(func, arg_type, 4) \
+  FMT_WRAP1(func, arg_type, 5) FMT_WRAP1(func, arg_type, 6) \
+  FMT_WRAP1(func, arg_type, 7) FMT_WRAP1(func, arg_type, 8) \
+  FMT_WRAP1(func, arg_type, 9) FMT_WRAP1(func, arg_type, 10)
+
+# define FMT_CTOR(ctor, func, arg0_type, arg1_type, n) \
+  template <FMT_GEN(n, FMT_MAKE_TEMPLATE_ARG)> \
+  ctor(arg0_type arg0, arg1_type arg1, FMT_GEN(n, FMT_MAKE_ARG)) { \
+    const fmt::internal::ArgArray<n>::Type array = {FMT_GEN(n, FMT_MAKE_REF)}; 
\
+    func(arg0, arg1, fmt::ArgList( \
+      fmt::internal::make_type(FMT_GEN(n, FMT_MAKE_REF2)), array)); \
+      }
+
+// Emulates a variadic constructor on a pre-C++11 compiler.
+# define FMT_VARIADIC_CTOR(ctor, func, arg0_type, arg1_type) \
+  FMT_CTOR(ctor, func, arg0_type, arg1_type, 1) \
+  FMT_CTOR(ctor, func, arg0_type, arg1_type, 2) \
+  FMT_CTOR(ctor, func, arg0_type, arg1_type, 3) \
+  FMT_CTOR(ctor, func, arg0_type, arg1_type, 4) \
+  FMT_CTOR(ctor, func, arg0_type, arg1_type, 5) \
+  FMT_CTOR(ctor, func, arg0_type, arg1_type, 6) \
+  FMT_CTOR(ctor, func, arg0_type, arg1_type, 7) \
+  FMT_CTOR(ctor, func, arg0_type, arg1_type, 8) \
+  FMT_CTOR(ctor, func, arg0_type, arg1_type, 9) \
+  FMT_CTOR(ctor, func, arg0_type, arg1_type, 10)
+#endif
+
+// Generates a comma-separated list with results of applying f to pairs
+// (argument, index).
+#define FMT_FOR_EACH1(f, x0) f(x0, 0)
+#define FMT_FOR_EACH2(f, x0, x1) \
+  FMT_FOR_EACH1(f, x0), f(x1, 1)
+#define FMT_FOR_EACH3(f, x0, x1, x2) \
+  FMT_FOR_EACH2(f, x0 ,x1), f(x2, 2)
+#define FMT_FOR_EACH4(f, x0, x1, x2, x3) \
+  FMT_FOR_EACH3(f, x0, x1, x2), f(x3, 3)
+#define FMT_FOR_EACH5(f, x0, x1, x2, x3, x4) \
+  FMT_FOR_EACH4(f, x0, x1, x2, x3), f(x4, 4)
+#define FMT_FOR_EACH6(f, x0, x1, x2, x3, x4, x5) \
+  FMT_FOR_EACH5(f, x0, x1, x2, x3, x4), f(x5, 5)
+#define FMT_FOR_EACH7(f, x0, x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, x6) \
+  FMT_FOR_EACH6(f, x0, x1, x2, x3, x4, x5), f(x6, 6)
+#define FMT_FOR_EACH8(f, x0, x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, x6, x7) \
+  FMT_FOR_EACH7(f, x0, x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, x6), f(x7, 7)
+#define FMT_FOR_EACH9(f, x0, x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, x6, x7, x8) \
+  FMT_FOR_EACH8(f, x0, x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, x6, x7), f(x8, 8)
+#define FMT_FOR_EACH10(f, x0, x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, x6, x7, x8, x9) \
+  FMT_FOR_EACH9(f, x0, x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, x6, x7, x8), f(x9, 9)
+
+/**
+An error returned by an operating system or a language runtime,
+for example a file opening error.
+*/
+class SystemError : public internal::RuntimeError {
+private:
+    void init(int err_code, CStringRef format_str, ArgList args);
+
+protected:
+    int error_code_;
+
+    typedef char Char;  // For FMT_VARIADIC_CTOR.
+
+    SystemError() {}
+
+public:
+    /**
+    \rst
+    Constructs a :class:`fmt::SystemError` object with the description
+    of the form
+
+    .. parsed-literal::
+    *<message>*: *<system-message>*
+
+    where *<message>* is the formatted message and *<system-message>* is
+    the system message corresponding to the error code.
+    *error_code* is a system error code as given by ``errno``.
+    If *error_code* is not a valid error code such as -1, the system message
+    may look like "Unknown error -1" and is platform-dependent.
+
+    **Example**::
+
+    // This throws a SystemError with the description
+    //   cannot open file 'madeup': No such file or directory
+    // or similar (system message may vary).
+    const char *filename = "madeup";
+    std::FILE *file = std::fopen(filename, "r");
+    if (!file)
+    throw fmt::SystemError(errno, "cannot open file '{}'", filename);
+    \endrst
+    */
+    SystemError(int error_code, CStringRef message) {
+        init(error_code, message, ArgList());
+    }
+    FMT_VARIADIC_CTOR(SystemError, init, int, CStringRef)
+
+    int error_code() const {
+        return error_code_;
+    }
+};
+
+/**
+\rst
+This template provides operations for formatting and writing data into
+a character stream. The output is stored in a buffer provided by a subclass
+such as :class:`fmt::BasicMemoryWriter`.
+
+You can use one of the following typedefs for common character types:
+
++---------+----------------------+
+| Type    | Definition           |
++=========+======================+
+| Writer  | BasicWriter<char>    |
++---------+----------------------+
+| WWriter | BasicWriter<wchar_t> |
++---------+----------------------+
+
+\endrst
+*/
+template <typename Char>
+class BasicWriter {
+private:
+    // Output buffer.
+    Buffer<Char> &buffer_;
+
+    FMT_DISALLOW_COPY_AND_ASSIGN(BasicWriter);
+
+    typedef typename internal::CharTraits<Char>::CharPtr CharPtr;
+
+#if _SECURE_SCL
+    // Returns pointer value.
+    static Char *get(CharPtr p) {
+        return p.base();
+    }
+#else
+    static Char *get(Char *p) {
+        return p;
+    }
+#endif
+
+    // Fills the padding around the content and returns the pointer to the
+    // content area.
+    static CharPtr fill_padding(CharPtr buffer,
+                                unsigned total_size, std::size_t content_size, 
wchar_t fill);
+
+    // Grows the buffer by n characters and returns a pointer to the newly
+    // allocated area.
+    CharPtr grow_buffer(std::size_t n) {
+        std::size_t size = buffer_.size();
+        buffer_.resize(size + n);
+        return internal::make_ptr(&buffer_[size], n);
+    }
+
+    // Prepare a buffer for integer formatting.
+    CharPtr prepare_int_buffer(unsigned num_digits,
+                               const EmptySpec &, const char *prefix, unsigned 
prefix_size) {
+        unsigned size = prefix_size + num_digits;
+        CharPtr p = grow_buffer(size);
+        std::copy(prefix, prefix + prefix_size, p);
+        return p + size - 1;
+    }
+
+    template <typename Spec>
+    CharPtr prepare_int_buffer(unsigned num_digits,
+                               const Spec &spec, const char *prefix, unsigned 
prefix_size);
+
+    // Formats an integer.
+    template <typename T, typename Spec>
+    void write_int(T value, Spec spec);
+
+    // Formats a floating-point number (double or long double).
+    template <typename T>
+    void write_double(T value, const FormatSpec &spec);
+
+    // Writes a formatted string.
+    template <typename StrChar>
+    CharPtr write_str(
+        const StrChar *s, std::size_t size, const AlignSpec &spec);
+
+    template <typename StrChar>
+    void write_str(
+        const internal::Arg::StringValue<StrChar> &str, const FormatSpec 
&spec);
+
+    // This following methods are private to disallow writing wide characters
+    // and strings to a char stream. If you want to print a wide string as a
+    // pointer as std::ostream does, cast it to const void*.
+    // Do not implement!
+    void operator<<(typename internal::WCharHelper<wchar_t, 
Char>::Unsupported);
+    void operator<<(
+        typename internal::WCharHelper<const wchar_t *, Char>::Unsupported);
+
+    // Appends floating-point length specifier to the format string.
+    // The second argument is only used for overload resolution.
+    void append_float_length(Char *&format_ptr, long double) {
+        *format_ptr++ = 'L';
+    }
+
+    template<typename T>
+    void append_float_length(Char *&, T) {}
+
+    template <typename Impl, typename Char_>
+    friend class internal::BasicArgFormatter;
+
+    friend class internal::PrintfArgFormatter<Char>;
+
+protected:
+    /**
+    Constructs a ``BasicWriter`` object.
+    */
+    explicit BasicWriter(Buffer<Char> &b) : buffer_(b) {}
+
+public:
+    /**
+    \rst
+    Destroys a ``BasicWriter`` object.
+    \endrst
+    */
+    virtual ~BasicWriter() {}
+
+    /**
+    Returns the total number of characters written.
+    */
+    std::size_t size() const {
+        return buffer_.size();
+    }
+
+    /**
+    Returns a pointer to the output buffer content. No terminating null
+    character is appended.
+    */
+    const Char *data() const FMT_NOEXCEPT {
+        return &buffer_[0];
+    }
+
+    /**
+    Returns a pointer to the output buffer content with terminating null
+    character appended.
+    */
+    const Char *c_str() const {
+        std::size_t size = buffer_.size();
+        buffer_.reserve(size + 1);
+        buffer_[size] = '\0';
+        return &buffer_[0];
+    }
+
+    /**
+    \rst
+    Returns the content of the output buffer as an `std::string`.
+    \endrst
+    */
+    std::basic_string<Char> str() const {
+        return std::basic_string<Char>(&buffer_[0], buffer_.size());
+    }
+
+    /**
+    \rst
+    Writes formatted data.
+
+    *args* is an argument list representing arbitrary arguments.
+
+    **Example**::
+
+    MemoryWriter out;
+    out.write("Current point:\n");
+    out.write("({:+f}, {:+f})", -3.14, 3.14);
+
+    This will write the following output to the ``out`` object:
+
+    .. code-block:: none
+
+    Current point:
+    (-3.140000, +3.140000)
+
+    The output can be accessed using :func:`data()`, :func:`c_str` or
+    :func:`str` methods.
+
+    See also :ref:`syntax`.
+    \endrst
+    */
+    void write(BasicCStringRef<Char> format, ArgList args) {
+        BasicFormatter<Char>(*this).format(format, args);
+    }
+    FMT_VARIADIC_VOID(write, BasicCStringRef<Char>)
+
+    BasicWriter &operator<<(int value) {
+        return *this << IntFormatSpec<int>(value);
+    }
+    BasicWriter &operator<<(unsigned value) {
+        return *this << IntFormatSpec<unsigned>(value);
+    }
+    BasicWriter &operator<<(long value) {
+        return *this << IntFormatSpec<long>(value);
+    }
+    BasicWriter &operator<<(unsigned long value) {
+        return *this << IntFormatSpec<unsigned long>(value);
+    }
+    BasicWriter &operator<<(LongLong value) {
+        return *this << IntFormatSpec<LongLong>(value);
+    }
+
+    /**
+    \rst
+    Formats *value* and writes it to the stream.
+    \endrst
+    */
+    BasicWriter &operator<<(ULongLong value) {
+        return *this << IntFormatSpec<ULongLong>(value);
+    }
+
+    BasicWriter &operator<<(double value) {
+        write_double(value, FormatSpec());
+        return *this;
+    }
+
+    /**
+    \rst
+    Formats *value* using the general format for floating-point numbers
+    (``'g'``) and writes it to the stream.
+    \endrst
+    */
+    BasicWriter &operator<<(long double value) {
+        write_double(value, FormatSpec());
+        return *this;
+    }
+
+    /**
+    Writes a character to the stream.
+    */
+    BasicWriter &operator<<(char value) {
+        buffer_.push_back(value);
+        return *this;
+    }
+
+    BasicWriter &operator<<(
+        typename internal::WCharHelper<wchar_t, Char>::Supported value) {
+        buffer_.push_back(value);
+        return *this;
+    }
+
+    /**
+    \rst
+    Writes *value* to the stream.
+    \endrst
+    */
+    BasicWriter &operator<<(fmt::BasicStringRef<Char> value) {
+        const Char *str = value.data();
+        buffer_.append(str, str + value.size());
+        return *this;
+    }
+
+    BasicWriter &operator<<(
+        typename internal::WCharHelper<StringRef, Char>::Supported value) {
+        const char *str = value.data();
+        buffer_.append(str, str + value.size());
+        return *this;
+    }
+
+    template <typename T, typename Spec, typename FillChar>
+    BasicWriter &operator<<(IntFormatSpec<T, Spec, FillChar> spec) {
+        internal::CharTraits<Char>::convert(FillChar());
+        write_int(spec.value(), spec);
+        return *this;
+    }
+
+    template <typename StrChar>
+    BasicWriter &operator<<(const StrFormatSpec<StrChar> &spec) {
+        const StrChar *s = spec.str();
+        write_str(s, std::char_traits<Char>::length(s), spec);
+        return *this;
+    }
+
+    void clear() FMT_NOEXCEPT{ buffer_.clear(); }
+};
+
+template <typename Char>
+template <typename StrChar>
+typename BasicWriter<Char>::CharPtr BasicWriter<Char>::write_str(
+    const StrChar *s, std::size_t size, const AlignSpec &spec) {
+    CharPtr out = CharPtr();
+    if (spec.width() > size) {
+        out = grow_buffer(spec.width());
+        Char fill = internal::CharTraits<Char>::cast(spec.fill());
+        if (spec.align() == ALIGN_RIGHT) {
+            std::fill_n(out, spec.width() - size, fill);
+            out += spec.width() - size;
+        }
+        else if (spec.align() == ALIGN_CENTER) {
+            out = fill_padding(out, spec.width(), size, fill);
+        }
+        else {
+            std::fill_n(out + size, spec.width() - size, fill);
+        }
+    }
+    else {
+        out = grow_buffer(size);
+    }
+    std::copy(s, s + size, out);
+    return out;
+}
+
+template <typename Char>
+typename BasicWriter<Char>::CharPtr
+BasicWriter<Char>::fill_padding(
+    CharPtr buffer, unsigned total_size,
+    std::size_t content_size, wchar_t fill) {
+    std::size_t padding = total_size - content_size;
+    std::size_t left_padding = padding / 2;
+    Char fill_char = internal::CharTraits<Char>::cast(fill);
+    std::fill_n(buffer, left_padding, fill_char);
+    buffer += left_padding;
+    CharPtr content = buffer;
+    std::fill_n(buffer + content_size, padding - left_padding, fill_char);
+    return content;
+}
+
+template <typename Char>
+template <typename Spec>
+typename BasicWriter<Char>::CharPtr
+BasicWriter<Char>::prepare_int_buffer(
+    unsigned num_digits, const Spec &spec,
+    const char *prefix, unsigned prefix_size) {
+    unsigned width = spec.width();
+    Alignment align = spec.align();
+    Char fill = internal::CharTraits<Char>::cast(spec.fill());
+    if (spec.precision() > static_cast<int>(num_digits)) {
+        // Octal prefix '0' is counted as a digit, so ignore it if precision
+        // is specified.
+        if (prefix_size > 0 && prefix[prefix_size - 1] == '0')
+            --prefix_size;
+        unsigned number_size = prefix_size + spec.precision();
+        AlignSpec subspec(number_size, '0', ALIGN_NUMERIC);
+        if (number_size >= width)
+            return prepare_int_buffer(num_digits, subspec, prefix, 
prefix_size);
+        buffer_.reserve(width);
+        unsigned fill_size = width - number_size;
+        if (align != ALIGN_LEFT) {
+            CharPtr p = grow_buffer(fill_size);
+            std::fill(p, p + fill_size, fill);
+        }
+        CharPtr result = prepare_int_buffer(
+                             num_digits, subspec, prefix, prefix_size);
+        if (align == ALIGN_LEFT) {
+            CharPtr p = grow_buffer(fill_size);
+            std::fill(p, p + fill_size, fill);
+        }
+        return result;
+    }
+    unsigned size = prefix_size + num_digits;
+    if (width <= size) {
+        CharPtr p = grow_buffer(size);
+        std::copy(prefix, prefix + prefix_size, p);
+        return p + size - 1;
+    }
+    CharPtr p = grow_buffer(width);
+    CharPtr end = p + width;
+    if (align == ALIGN_LEFT) {
+        std::copy(prefix, prefix + prefix_size, p);
+        p += size;
+        std::fill(p, end, fill);
+    }
+    else if (align == ALIGN_CENTER) {
+        p = fill_padding(p, width, size, fill);
+        std::copy(prefix, prefix + prefix_size, p);
+        p += size;
+    }
+    else {
+        if (align == ALIGN_NUMERIC) {
+            if (prefix_size != 0) {
+                p = std::copy(prefix, prefix + prefix_size, p);
+                size -= prefix_size;
+            }
+        }
+        else {
+            std::copy(prefix, prefix + prefix_size, end - size);
+        }
+        std::fill(p, end - size, fill);
+        p = end;
+    }
+    return p - 1;
+}
+
+template <typename Char>
+template <typename T, typename Spec>
+void BasicWriter<Char>::write_int(T value, Spec spec) {
+    unsigned prefix_size = 0;
+    typedef typename internal::IntTraits<T>::MainType UnsignedType;
+    UnsignedType abs_value = value;
+    char prefix[4] = "";
+    if (internal::is_negative(value)) {
+        prefix[0] = '-';
+        ++prefix_size;
+        abs_value = 0 - abs_value;
+    }
+    else if (spec.flag(SIGN_FLAG)) {
+        prefix[0] = spec.flag(PLUS_FLAG) ? '+' : ' ';
+        ++prefix_size;
+    }
+    switch (spec.type()) {
+    case 0:
+    case 'd': {
+        unsigned num_digits = internal::count_digits(abs_value);
+        CharPtr p = prepare_int_buffer(
+                        num_digits, spec, prefix, prefix_size) + 1 - 
num_digits;
+        internal::format_decimal(get(p), abs_value, num_digits);
+        break;
+    }
+    case 'x':
+    case 'X': {
+        UnsignedType n = abs_value;
+        if (spec.flag(HASH_FLAG)) {
+            prefix[prefix_size++] = '0';
+            prefix[prefix_size++] = spec.type();
+        }
+        unsigned num_digits = 0;
+        do {
+            ++num_digits;
+        } while ((n >>= 4) != 0);
+        Char *p = get(prepare_int_buffer(
+                          num_digits, spec, prefix, prefix_size));
+        n = abs_value;
+        const char *digits = spec.type() == 'x' ?
+                             "0123456789abcdef" : "0123456789ABCDEF";
+        do {
+            *p-- = digits[n & 0xf];
+        } while ((n >>= 4) != 0);
+        break;
+    }
+    case 'b':
+    case 'B': {
+        UnsignedType n = abs_value;
+        if (spec.flag(HASH_FLAG)) {
+            prefix[prefix_size++] = '0';
+            prefix[prefix_size++] = spec.type();
+        }
+        unsigned num_digits = 0;
+        do {
+            ++num_digits;
+        } while ((n >>= 1) != 0);
+        Char *p = get(prepare_int_buffer(num_digits, spec, prefix, 
prefix_size));
+        n = abs_value;
+        do {
+            *p-- = '0' + (n & 1);
+        } while ((n >>= 1) != 0);
+        break;
+    }
+    case 'o': {
+        UnsignedType n = abs_value;
+        if (spec.flag(HASH_FLAG))
+            prefix[prefix_size++] = '0';
+        unsigned num_digits = 0;
+        do {
+            ++num_digits;
+        } while ((n >>= 3) != 0);
+        Char *p = get(prepare_int_buffer(num_digits, spec, prefix, 
prefix_size));
+        n = abs_value;
+        do {
+            *p-- = '0' + (n & 7);
+        } while ((n >>= 3) != 0);
+        break;
+    }
+    default:
+        internal::report_unknown_type(
+            spec.type(), spec.flag(CHAR_FLAG) ? "char" : "integer");
+        break;
+    }
+}
+
+template <typename Char>
+template <typename T>
+void BasicWriter<Char>::write_double(
+    T value, const FormatSpec &spec) {
+    // Check type.
+    char type = spec.type();
+    bool upper = false;
+    switch (type) {
+    case 0:
+        type = 'g';
+        break;
+    case 'e':
+    case 'f':
+    case 'g':
+    case 'a':
+        break;
+    case 'F':
+#ifdef _MSC_VER
+        // MSVC's printf doesn't support 'F'.
+        type = 'f';
+#endif
+    // Fall through.
+    case 'E':
+    case 'G':
+    case 'A':
+        upper = true;
+        break;
+    default:
+        internal::report_unknown_type(type, "double");
+        break;
+    }
+
+    char sign = 0;
+    // Use getsign instead of value < 0 because the latter is always
+    // false for NaN.
+    if (internal::getsign(static_cast<double>(value))) {
+        sign = '-';
+        value = -value;
+    }
+    else if (spec.flag(SIGN_FLAG)) {
+        sign = spec.flag(PLUS_FLAG) ? '+' : ' ';
+    }
+
+    if (value != value) {
+        // Format NaN ourselves because sprintf's output is not consistent
+        // across platforms.
+        std::size_t nan_size = 4;
+        const char *nan = upper ? " NAN" : " nan";
+        if (!sign) {
+            --nan_size;
+            ++nan;
+        }
+        CharPtr out = write_str(nan, nan_size, spec);
+        if (sign)
+            *out = sign;
+        return;
+    }
+
+    if (internal::isinfinity(value)) {
+        // Format infinity ourselves because sprintf's output is not consistent
+        // across platforms.
+        std::size_t inf_size = 4;
+        const char *inf = upper ? " INF" : " inf";
+        if (!sign) {
+            --inf_size;
+            ++inf;
+        }
+        CharPtr out = write_str(inf, inf_size, spec);
+        if (sign)
+            *out = sign;
+        return;
+    }
+
+    std::size_t offset = buffer_.size();
+    unsigned width = spec.width();
+    if (sign) {
+        buffer_.reserve(buffer_.size() + (std::max)(width, 1u));
+        if (width > 0)
+            --width;
+        ++offset;
+    }
+
+    // Build format string.
+    enum { MAX_FORMAT_SIZE = 10 }; // longest format: %#-*.*Lg
+    Char format[MAX_FORMAT_SIZE];
+    Char *format_ptr = format;
+    *format_ptr++ = '%';
+    unsigned width_for_sprintf = width;
+    if (spec.flag(HASH_FLAG))
+        *format_ptr++ = '#';
+    if (spec.align() == ALIGN_CENTER) {
+        width_for_sprintf = 0;
+    }
+    else {
+        if (spec.align() == ALIGN_LEFT)
+            *format_ptr++ = '-';
+        if (width != 0)
+            *format_ptr++ = '*';
+    }
+    if (spec.precision() >= 0) {
+        *format_ptr++ = '.';
+        *format_ptr++ = '*';
+    }
+
+    append_float_length(format_ptr, value);
+    *format_ptr++ = type;
+    *format_ptr = '\0';
+
+    // Format using snprintf.
+    Char fill = internal::CharTraits<Char>::cast(spec.fill());
+    for (;;) {
+        std::size_t buffer_size = buffer_.capacity() - offset;
+#if _MSC_VER
+        // MSVC's vsnprintf_s doesn't work with zero size, so reserve
+        // space for at least one extra character to make the size non-zero.
+        // Note that the buffer's capacity will increase by more than 1.
+        if (buffer_size == 0) {
+            buffer_.reserve(offset + 1);
+            buffer_size = buffer_.capacity() - offset;
+        }
+#endif
+        Char *start = &buffer_[offset];
+        int n = internal::CharTraits<Char>::format_float(
+                    start, buffer_size, format, width_for_sprintf, 
spec.precision(), value);
+        if (n >= 0 && offset + n < buffer_.capacity()) {
+            if (sign) {
+                if ((spec.align() != ALIGN_RIGHT && spec.align() != 
ALIGN_DEFAULT) ||
+                        *start != ' ') {
+                    *(start - 1) = sign;
+                    sign = 0;
+                }
+                else {
+                    *(start - 1) = fill;
+                }
+                ++n;
+            }
+            if (spec.align() == ALIGN_CENTER &&
+                    spec.width() > static_cast<unsigned>(n)) {
+                width = spec.width();
+                CharPtr p = grow_buffer(width);
+                std::copy(p, p + n, p + (width - n) / 2);
+                fill_padding(p, spec.width(), n, fill);
+                return;
+            }
+            if (spec.fill() != ' ' || sign) {
+                while (*start == ' ')
+                    *start++ = fill;
+                if (sign)
+                    *(start - 1) = sign;
+            }
+            grow_buffer(n);
+            return;
+        }
+        // If n is negative we ask to increase the capacity by at least 1,
+        // but as std::vector, the buffer grows exponentially.
+        buffer_.reserve(n >= 0 ? offset + n + 1 : buffer_.capacity() + 1);
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+\rst
+This class template provides operations for formatting and writing data
+into a character stream. The output is stored in a memory buffer that grows
+dynamically.
+
+You can use one of the following typedefs for common character types
+and the standard allocator:
+
++---------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
+| Type          | Definition                                          |
++===============+=====================================================+
+| MemoryWriter  | BasicMemoryWriter<char, std::allocator<char>>       |
++---------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
+| WMemoryWriter | BasicMemoryWriter<wchar_t, std::allocator<wchar_t>> |
++---------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
+
+**Example**::
+
+MemoryWriter out;
+out << "The answer is " << 42 << "\n";
+out.write("({:+f}, {:+f})", -3.14, 3.14);
+
+This will write the following output to the ``out`` object:
+
+.. code-block:: none
+
+The answer is 42
+(-3.140000, +3.140000)
+
+The output can be converted to an ``std::string`` with ``out.str()`` or
+accessed as a C string with ``out.c_str()``.
+\endrst
+*/
+template <typename Char, typename Allocator = std::allocator<Char> >
+class BasicMemoryWriter : public BasicWriter<Char> {
+private:
+    internal::MemoryBuffer<Char, internal::INLINE_BUFFER_SIZE, Allocator> 
buffer_;
+
+public:
+    explicit BasicMemoryWriter(const Allocator& alloc = Allocator())
+        : BasicWriter<Char>(buffer_), buffer_(alloc) {}
+
+#if FMT_USE_RVALUE_REFERENCES
+    /**
+    \rst
+    Constructs a :class:`fmt::BasicMemoryWriter` object moving the content
+    of the other object to it.
+    \endrst
+    */
+    BasicMemoryWriter(BasicMemoryWriter &&other)
+        : BasicWriter<Char>(buffer_), buffer_(std::move(other.buffer_)) {
+    }
+
+    /**
+    \rst
+    Moves the content of the other ``BasicMemoryWriter`` object to this one.
+    \endrst
+    */
+    BasicMemoryWriter &operator=(BasicMemoryWriter &&other) {
+        buffer_ = std::move(other.buffer_);
+        return *this;
+    }
+#endif
+};
+
+typedef BasicMemoryWriter<char> MemoryWriter;
+typedef BasicMemoryWriter<wchar_t> WMemoryWriter;
+
+/**
+\rst
+This class template provides operations for formatting and writing data
+into a fixed-size array. For writing into a dynamically growing buffer
+use :class:`fmt::BasicMemoryWriter`.
+
+Any write method will throw ``std::runtime_error`` if the output doesn't fit
+into the array.
+
+You can use one of the following typedefs for common character types:
+
++--------------+---------------------------+
+| Type         | Definition                |
++==============+===========================+
+| ArrayWriter  | BasicArrayWriter<char>    |
++--------------+---------------------------+
+| WArrayWriter | BasicArrayWriter<wchar_t> |
++--------------+---------------------------+
+\endrst
+*/
+template <typename Char>
+class BasicArrayWriter : public BasicWriter<Char> {
+private:
+    internal::FixedBuffer<Char> buffer_;
+
+public:
+    /**
+    \rst
+    Constructs a :class:`fmt::BasicArrayWriter` object for *array* of the
+    given size.
+    \endrst
+    */
+    BasicArrayWriter(Char *array, std::size_t size)
+        : BasicWriter<Char>(buffer_), buffer_(array, size) {}
+
+    /**
+    \rst
+    Constructs a :class:`fmt::BasicArrayWriter` object for *array* of the
+    size known at compile time.
+    \endrst
+    */
+    template <std::size_t SIZE>
+    explicit BasicArrayWriter(Char(&array)[SIZE])
+        : BasicWriter<Char>(buffer_), buffer_(array, SIZE) {}
+};
+
+typedef BasicArrayWriter<char> ArrayWriter;
+typedef BasicArrayWriter<wchar_t> WArrayWriter;
+
+// Formats a value.
+template <typename Char, typename T>
+void format(BasicFormatter<Char> &f, const Char *&format_str, const T &value) {
+    std::basic_ostringstream<Char> os;
+    os << value;
+    std::basic_string<Char> str = os.str();
+    internal::Arg arg = internal::MakeValue<Char>(str);
+    arg.type = static_cast<internal::Arg::Type>(
+                   internal::MakeValue<Char>::type(str));
+    format_str = f.format(format_str, arg);
+}
+
+// Reports a system error without throwing an exception.
+// Can be used to report errors from destructors.
+void report_system_error(int error_code, StringRef message) FMT_NOEXCEPT;
+
+#if FMT_USE_WINDOWS_H
+
+/** A Windows error. */
+class WindowsError : public SystemError {
+private:
+    void init(int error_code, CStringRef format_str, ArgList args);
+
+public:
+    /**
+    \rst
+    Constructs a :class:`fmt::WindowsError` object with the description
+    of the form
+
+    .. parsed-literal::
+    *<message>*: *<system-message>*
+
+    where *<message>* is the formatted message and *<system-message>* is the
+    system message corresponding to the error code.
+    *error_code* is a Windows error code as given by ``GetLastError``.
+    If *error_code* is not a valid error code such as -1, the system message
+    will look like "error -1".
+
+    **Example**::
+
+    // This throws a WindowsError with the description
+    //   cannot open file 'madeup': The system cannot find the file specified.
+    // or similar (system message may vary).
+    const char *filename = "madeup";
+    LPOFSTRUCT of = LPOFSTRUCT();
+    HFILE file = OpenFile(filename, &of, OF_READ);
+    if (file == HFILE_ERROR) {
+    throw fmt::WindowsError(GetLastError(),
+    "cannot open file '{}'", filename);
+    }
+    \endrst
+    */
+    WindowsError(int error_code, CStringRef message) {
+        init(error_code, message, ArgList());
+    }
+    FMT_VARIADIC_CTOR(WindowsError, init, int, CStringRef)
+};
+
+// Reports a Windows error without throwing an exception.
+// Can be used to report errors from destructors.
+void report_windows_error(int error_code, StringRef message) FMT_NOEXCEPT;
+
+#endif
+
+enum Color { BLACK, RED, GREEN, YELLOW, BLUE, MAGENTA, CYAN, WHITE };
+
+/**
+Formats a string and prints it to stdout using ANSI escape sequences
+to specify color (experimental).
+Example:
+PrintColored(fmt::RED, "Elapsed time: {0:.2f} seconds") << 1.23;
+*/
+void print_colored(Color c, CStringRef format, ArgList args);
+
+/**
+\rst
+Formats arguments and returns the result as a string.
+
+**Example**::
+
+std::string message = format("The answer is {}", 42);
+\endrst
+*/
+inline std::string format(CStringRef format_str, ArgList args) {
+    MemoryWriter w;
+    w.write(format_str, args);
+    return w.str();
+}
+
+inline std::wstring format(WCStringRef format_str, ArgList args) {
+    WMemoryWriter w;
+    w.write(format_str, args);
+    return w.str();
+}
+
+/**
+\rst
+Prints formatted data to the file *f*.
+
+**Example**::
+
+print(stderr, "Don't {}!", "panic");
+\endrst
+*/
+void print(std::FILE *f, CStringRef format_str, ArgList args);
+
+/**
+\rst
+Prints formatted data to ``stdout``.
+
+**Example**::
+
+print("Elapsed time: {0:.2f} seconds", 1.23);
+\endrst
+*/
+void print(CStringRef format_str, ArgList args);
+
+/**
+\rst
+Prints formatted data to the stream *os*.
+
+**Example**::
+
+print(cerr, "Don't {}!", "panic");
+\endrst
+*/
+void print(std::ostream &os, CStringRef format_str, ArgList args);
+
+template <typename Char>
+void printf(BasicWriter<Char> &w, BasicCStringRef<Char> format, ArgList args) {
+    internal::PrintfFormatter<Char>().format(w, format, args);
+}
+
+/**
+\rst
+Formats arguments and returns the result as a string.
+
+**Example**::
+
+std::string message = fmt::sprintf("The answer is %d", 42);
+\endrst
+*/
+inline std::string sprintf(CStringRef format, ArgList args) {
+    MemoryWriter w;
+    printf(w, format, args);
+    return w.str();
+}
+
+/**
+\rst
+Prints formatted data to the file *f*.
+
+**Example**::
+
+fmt::fprintf(stderr, "Don't %s!", "panic");
+\endrst
+*/
+int fprintf(std::FILE *f, CStringRef format, ArgList args);
+
+/**
+\rst
+Prints formatted data to ``stdout``.
+
+**Example**::
+
+fmt::printf("Elapsed time: %.2f seconds", 1.23);
+\endrst
+*/
+inline int printf(CStringRef format, ArgList args) {
+    return fprintf(stdout, format, args);
+}
+
+/**
+Fast integer formatter.
+*/
+class FormatInt {
+private:
+    // Buffer should be large enough to hold all digits (digits10 + 1),
+    // a sign and a null character.
+    enum { BUFFER_SIZE = std::numeric_limits<ULongLong>::digits10 + 3 };
+    mutable char buffer_[BUFFER_SIZE];
+    char *str_;
+
+    // Formats value in reverse and returns the number of digits.
+    char *format_decimal(ULongLong value) {
+        char *buffer_end = buffer_ + BUFFER_SIZE - 1;
+        while (value >= 100) {
+            // Integer division is slow so do it for a group of two digits 
instead
+            // of for every digit. The idea comes from the talk by Alexandrescu
+            // "Three Optimization Tips for C++". See speed-test for a 
comparison.
+            unsigned index = (value % 100) * 2;
+            value /= 100;
+            *--buffer_end = internal::Data::DIGITS[index + 1];
+            *--buffer_end = internal::Data::DIGITS[index];
+        }
+        if (value < 10) {
+            *--buffer_end = static_cast<char>('0' + value);
+            return buffer_end;
+        }
+        unsigned index = static_cast<unsigned>(value * 2);
+        *--buffer_end = internal::Data::DIGITS[index + 1];
+        *--buffer_end = internal::Data::DIGITS[index];
+        return buffer_end;
+    }
+
+    void FormatSigned(LongLong value) {
+        ULongLong abs_value = static_cast<ULongLong>(value);
+        bool negative = value < 0;
+        if (negative)
+            abs_value = 0 - abs_value;
+        str_ = format_decimal(abs_value);
+        if (negative)
+            *--str_ = '-';
+    }
+
+public:
+    explicit FormatInt(int value) {
+        FormatSigned(value);
+    }
+    explicit FormatInt(long value) {
+        FormatSigned(value);
+    }
+    explicit FormatInt(LongLong value) {
+        FormatSigned(value);
+   

<TRUNCATED>

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