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(Implemented in C++)</a></li><li>ch02s03.html</li></ul>
-
-        <div id="-middle-content">
-          <div class="docbook"><div class="navheader"><table 
summary="Navigation header" width="100%"><tr><th align="center" 
colspan="3">2.3.&#160;
-      QMF Python Console Tutorial
-    </th></tr><tr><td align="left" width="20%"><a accesskey="p" 
href="ch02s02.html">Prev</a>&#160;</td><th align="center" 
width="60%">Chapter&#160;2.&#160;
-      Managing the AMQP Messaging Broker
-    </th><td align="right" width="20%">&#160;</td></tr></table><hr 
/></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 
class="title"><a id="idm139836370635840"></a>2.3.&#160;
-      QMF Python Console Tutorial
-    </h2></div></div></div><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" 
type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
-                <a class="xref" 
href="ch02s03.html#QMFPythonConsoleTutorial-PrerequisiteInstallQpidMessaging" 
title="2.3.1.&#160; Prerequisite - Install Qpid Messaging">Section&#160;2.3.1, 
&#8220;
-            Prerequisite
-            - Install Qpid Messaging
-          &#8221;</a>
-              </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-                <a class="xref" 
href="ch02s03.html#QMFPythonConsoleTutorial-SynchronousConsoleOperations" 
title="2.3.2.&#160; Synchronous Console Operations">Section&#160;2.3.2, &#8220;
-            Synchronous
-            Console Operations
-          &#8221;</a>
-              </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-                </p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" 
type="circle"><li class="listitem"><p>
-                    <a class="xref" 
href="ch02s03.html#QMFPythonConsoleTutorial-CreatingaQMFConsoleSessionandAttachingtoaBroker"
 title="2.3.2.1.&#160; Creating a QMF Console Session and Attaching to a 
Broker">Section&#160;2.3.2.1, &#8220;
-            Creating a QMF Console Session and Attaching to a Broker
-          &#8221;</a>
-                  </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-                    <a class="xref" 
href="ch02s03.html#QMFPythonConsoleTutorial-AccessingManagedObjects" 
title="2.3.2.2.&#160; Accessing Managed Objects">Section&#160;2.3.2.2, &#8220;
-            Accessing
-            Managed Objects
-          &#8221;</a>
-                  </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-                    </p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" 
type="square"><li class="listitem"><p>
-                        <a class="xref" 
href="ch02s03.html#QMFPythonConsoleTutorial-ViewingPropertiesandStatisticsofanObject"
 title="Viewing Properties and Statistics of an Object">the section called 
&#8220;
-            Viewing Properties and Statistics of an Object
-          &#8221;</a>
-                      </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-                        <a class="xref" 
href="ch02s03.html#QMFPythonConsoleTutorial-InvokingMethodsonanObject" 
title="Invoking Methods on an Object">the section called &#8220;
-            Invoking
-            Methods on an Object
-          &#8221;</a>
-                      </p></li></ul></div><p>
-                  </p></li></ul></div><p>
-              </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-                <a class="xref" 
href="ch02s03.html#QMFPythonConsoleTutorial-AsynchronousConsoleOperations" 
title="2.3.3.&#160; Asynchronous Console Operations">Section&#160;2.3.3, &#8220;
-            Asynchronous
-            Console Operations
-          &#8221;</a>
-              </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-                </p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" 
type="circle"><li class="listitem"><p>
-                    <a class="xref" 
href="ch02s03.html#QMFPythonConsoleTutorial-CreatingaConsoleClasstoReceiveAsynchronousData"
 title="2.3.3.1.&#160; Creating a Console Class to Receive Asynchronous 
Data">Section&#160;2.3.3.1, &#8220;
-            Creating a Console Class to Receive Asynchronous Data
-          &#8221;</a>
-                  </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-                    <a class="xref" 
href="ch02s03.html#QMFPythonConsoleTutorial-ReceivingEvents" 
title="2.3.3.2.&#160; Receiving Events">Section&#160;2.3.3.2, &#8220;
-            Receiving
-            Events
-          &#8221;</a>
-                  </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-                    <a class="xref" 
href="ch02s03.html#QMFPythonConsoleTutorial-ReceivingObjects" 
title="2.3.3.3.&#160; Receiving Objects">Section&#160;2.3.3.3, &#8220;
-            Receiving
-            Objects
-          &#8221;</a>
-                  </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-                    <a class="xref" 
href="ch02s03.html#QMFPythonConsoleTutorial-AsynchronousMethodCallsandMethodTimeouts"
 title="2.3.3.4.&#160; Asynchronous Method Calls and Method 
Timeouts">Section&#160;2.3.3.4, &#8220;
-            Asynchronous Method Calls and Method Timeouts
-          &#8221;</a>
-                  </p></li></ul></div><p>
-              </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-                <a class="xref" 
href="ch02s03.html#QMFPythonConsoleTutorial-DiscoveringwhatKindsofObjectsareAvailable"
 title="2.3.4.&#160; Discovering what Kinds of Objects are 
Available">Section&#160;2.3.4, &#8220;
-            Discovering what Kinds of Objects are Available
-          &#8221;</a>
-              </p></li></ul></div><div class="section"><div 
class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a 
id="QMFPythonConsoleTutorial-PrerequisiteInstallQpidMessaging"></a>2.3.1.&#160;
-            Prerequisite
-            - Install Qpid Messaging
-          </h3></div></div></div><p>
-            QMF uses AMQP Messaging (QPid) as its means of communication. To
-            use QMF, Qpid messaging must be installed somewhere in the
-            network. Qpid can be downloaded as source from Apache, is
-            packaged with a number of Linux distributions, and can be
-            purchased from commercial vendors that use Qpid. Please see
-            <a class="ulink" href="http://qpid.apache.org"; 
target="_top">http://qpid.apache.org</a>for
-            information as to where to get Qpid Messaging.
-          </p><p>
-            Qpid Messaging includes a message broker (qpidd) which typically
-            runs as a daemon on a system. It also includes client bindings in
-            various programming languages. The Python-language client library
-            includes the QMF console libraries needed for this tutorial.
-          </p><p>
-            Please note that Qpid Messaging has two broker implementations.
-            One is implemented in C++ and the other in Java. At press time,
-            QMF is supported only by the C++ broker.
-          </p><p>
-            If the goal is to get the tutorial examples up and running as
-            quickly as possible, all of the Qpid components can be installed
-            on a single system (even a laptop). For more realistic
-            deployments, the broker can be deployed on a server and the
-            client/QMF libraries installed on other systems.
-          </p></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 
class="title"><a 
id="QMFPythonConsoleTutorial-SynchronousConsoleOperations"></a>2.3.2.&#160;
-            Synchronous
-            Console Operations
-          </h3></div></div></div><p>
-            The Python console API for QMF can be used in a synchronous
-            style, an asynchronous style, or a combination of both.
-            Synchronous operations are conceptually simple and are well
-            suited for user-interactive tasks. All operations are performed
-            in the context of a Python function call. If communication over
-            the message bus is required to complete an operation, the
-            function call blocks and waits for the expected result (or
-            timeout failure) before returning control to the caller.
-          </p><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 
class="title"><a 
id="QMFPythonConsoleTutorial-CreatingaQMFConsoleSessionandAttachingtoaBroker"></a>2.3.2.1.&#160;
-            Creating a QMF Console Session and Attaching to a Broker
-          </h4></div></div></div><p>
-            For the purposes of this tutorial, code examples will be shown as
-            they are entered in an interactive python session.
-          </p><pre class="programlisting">
-$ python
-Python 2.5.2 (r252:60911, Sep 30 2008, 15:41:38) 
-[GCC 4.3.2 20080917 (Red Hat 4.3.2-4)] on linux2
-Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
-&gt;&gt;&gt; 
-</pre><p>
-            We will begin by importing the required libraries. If the Python
-            client is properly installed, these libraries will be found
-            normally by the Python interpreter.
-          </p><pre class="programlisting">
-&gt;&gt;&gt; from qmf.console import Session
-</pre><p>
-            We must now create a <span 
class="emphasis"><em>Session</em></span> object to manage this QMF
-            console session.
-          </p><pre class="programlisting">
-&gt;&gt;&gt; sess = Session()
-</pre><p>
-            If no arguments are supplied to the creation of <span 
class="emphasis"><em>Session</em></span>,
-            it defaults to synchronous-only operation. It also defaults to
-            user-management of connections. More on this in a moment.
-          </p><p>
-            We will now establish a connection to the messaging broker. If
-            the broker daemon is running on the local host, simply use the
-            following:
-          </p><pre class="programlisting">
-&gt;&gt;&gt; broker = sess.addBroker()
-</pre><p>
-            If the messaging broker is on a remote host, supply the URL to
-            the broker in the <span class="emphasis"><em>addBroker</em></span> 
function call. Here's how to
-            connect to a local broker using the URL.
-          </p><pre class="programlisting">
-&gt;&gt;&gt; broker = sess.addBroker("amqp://localhost")
-</pre><p>
-            The call to <span class="emphasis"><em>addBroker</em></span> is 
synchronous and will return
-            only after the connection has been successfully established or
-            has failed. If a failure occurs, <span 
class="emphasis"><em>addBroker</em></span> will raise an
-            exception that can be handled by the console script.
-          </p><pre class="programlisting">
-&gt;&gt;&gt; try:
-...   broker = sess.addBroker("amqp://localhost:1000")
-... except:
-...   print "Connection Failed"
-... 
-Connection Failed
-&gt;&gt;&gt; 
-</pre><p>
-            This operation fails because there is no Qpid Messaging broker
-            listening on port 1000 (the default port for qpidd is 5672).
-          </p><p>
-            If preferred, the QMF session can manage the connection for you.
-            In this case, <span class="emphasis"><em>addBroker</em></span> 
returns immediately and the
-            session attempts to establish the connection in the background.
-            This will be covered in detail in the section on asynchronous
-            operations.
-          </p></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 
class="title"><a 
id="QMFPythonConsoleTutorial-AccessingManagedObjects"></a>2.3.2.2.&#160;
-            Accessing
-            Managed Objects
-          </h4></div></div></div><p>
-            The Python console API provides access to remotely managed
-            objects via a <span class="emphasis"><em>proxy</em></span> model. 
The API gives the client an
-            object that serves as a proxy representing the "real" object
-            being managed on the agent application. Operations performed on
-            the proxy result in the same operations on the real object.
-          </p><p>
-            The following examples assume prior knowledge of the kinds of
-            objects that are actually available to be managed. There is a
-            section later in this tutorial that describes how to discover
-            what is manageable on the QMF bus.
-          </p><p>
-            Proxy objects are obtained by calling the
-            <span class="emphasis"><em>Session.getObjects</em></span> function.
-          </p><p>
-            To illustrate, we'll get a list of objects representing queues in
-            the message broker itself.
-          </p><pre class="programlisting">
-&gt;&gt;&gt; queues = sess.getObjects(_class="queue", 
_package="org.apache.qpid.broker")
-</pre><p>
-            <span class="emphasis"><em>queues</em></span> is an array of proxy 
objects representing real
-            queues on the message broker. A proxy object can be printed to
-            display a description of the object.
-          </p><pre class="programlisting">
-&gt;&gt;&gt; for q in queues:
-...   print q
-... 
-org.apache.qpid.broker:queue[0-1537-1-0-58] 
0-0-1-0-1152921504606846979:reply-localhost.localdomain.32004
-org.apache.qpid.broker:queue[0-1537-1-0-61] 
0-0-1-0-1152921504606846979:topic-localhost.localdomain.32004
-&gt;&gt;&gt; 
-</pre><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h5 
class="title"><a 
id="QMFPythonConsoleTutorial-ViewingPropertiesandStatisticsofanObject"></a>
-            Viewing Properties and Statistics of an Object
-          </h5></div></div></div><p>
-            Let us now focus our attention on one of the queue objects.
-          </p><pre class="programlisting">
-&gt;&gt;&gt; queue = queues[0]
-</pre><p>
-            The attributes of an object are partitioned into
-            <span class="emphasis"><em>properties</em></span> and <span 
class="emphasis"><em>statistics</em></span>. Though the
-            distinction is somewhat arbitrary, <span 
class="emphasis"><em>properties</em></span> tend to
-            be fairly static and may also be large and <span 
class="emphasis"><em>statistics</em></span>
-            tend to change rapidly and are relatively small (counters, etc.).
-          </p><p>
-            There are two ways to view the properties of an object. An array
-            of properties can be obtained using the <span 
class="emphasis"><em>getProperties</em></span>
-            function:
-          </p><pre class="programlisting">
-&gt;&gt;&gt; props = queue.getProperties()
-&gt;&gt;&gt; for prop in props:
-...   print prop
-... 
-(vhostRef, 0-0-1-0-1152921504606846979)
-(name, u'reply-localhost.localdomain.32004')
-(durable, False)
-(autoDelete, True)
-(exclusive, True)
-(arguments, {})
-&gt;&gt;&gt; 
-</pre><p>
-            The <span class="emphasis"><em>getProperties</em></span> function 
returns an array of tuples.
-            Each tuple consists of the property descriptor and the property
-            value.
-          </p><p>
-            A more convenient way to access properties is by using the
-            attribute of the proxy object directly:
-          </p><pre class="programlisting">
-&gt;&gt;&gt; queue.autoDelete
-True
-&gt;&gt;&gt; queue.name
-u'reply-localhost.localdomain.32004'
-&gt;&gt;&gt; 
-</pre><p>
-            Statistics are accessed in the same way:
-          </p><pre class="programlisting">
-&gt;&gt;&gt; stats = queue.getStatistics()
-&gt;&gt;&gt; for stat in stats:
-...   print stat
-... 
-(msgTotalEnqueues, 53)
-(msgTotalDequeues, 53)
-(msgTxnEnqueues, 0)
-(msgTxnDequeues, 0)
-(msgPersistEnqueues, 0)
-(msgPersistDequeues, 0)
-(msgDepth, 0)
-(byteDepth, 0)
-(byteTotalEnqueues, 19116)
-(byteTotalDequeues, 19116)
-(byteTxnEnqueues, 0)
-(byteTxnDequeues, 0)
-(bytePersistEnqueues, 0)
-(bytePersistDequeues, 0)
-(consumerCount, 1)
-(consumerCountHigh, 1)
-(consumerCountLow, 1)
-(bindingCount, 2)
-(bindingCountHigh, 2)
-(bindingCountLow, 2)
-(unackedMessages, 0)
-(unackedMessagesHigh, 0)
-(unackedMessagesLow, 0)
-(messageLatencySamples, 0)
-(messageLatencyMin, 0)
-(messageLatencyMax, 0)
-(messageLatencyAverage, 0)
-&gt;&gt;&gt; 
-</pre><p>
-            or alternatively:
-          </p><pre class="programlisting">
-&gt;&gt;&gt; queue.byteTotalEnqueues
-19116
-&gt;&gt;&gt;
-</pre><p>
-            The proxy objects do not automatically track changes that occur
-            on the real objects. For example, if the real queue enqueues more
-            bytes, viewing the <span 
class="emphasis"><em>byteTotalEnqueues</em></span> statistic will show
-            the same number as it did the first time. To get updated data on
-            a proxy object, use the <span 
class="emphasis"><em>update</em></span> function call:
-          </p><pre class="programlisting">
-&gt;&gt;&gt; queue.update()
-&gt;&gt;&gt; queue.byteTotalEnqueues
-19783
-&gt;&gt;&gt;
-</pre><div class="note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 
class="title">Be Advised</h3><p>
-                    The <span class="emphasis"><em>update</em></span> method 
was added after the M4 release
-                    of Qpid/Qmf. It may not be available in your
-                    distribution.
-                  </p></div></div><div class="section"><div 
class="titlepage"><div><div><h5 class="title"><a 
id="QMFPythonConsoleTutorial-InvokingMethodsonanObject"></a>
-            Invoking
-            Methods on an Object
-          </h5></div></div></div><p>
-            Up to this point, we have used the QMF Console API to find
-            managed objects and view their attributes, a read-only activity.
-            The next topic to illustrate is how to invoke a method on a
-            managed object. Methods allow consoles to control the managed
-            agents by either triggering a one-time action or by changing the
-            values of attributes in an object.
-          </p><p>
-            First, we'll cover some background information about methods. A
-            <span class="emphasis"><em>QMF object class</em></span> (of which 
a <span class="emphasis"><em>QMF object</em></span> is an
-            instance), may have zero or more methods. To obtain a list of
-            methods available for an object, use the <span 
class="emphasis"><em>getMethods</em></span>
-            function.
-          </p><pre class="programlisting">
-&gt;&gt;&gt; methodList = queue.getMethods()
-</pre><p>
-            <span class="emphasis"><em>getMethods</em></span> returns an array 
of method descriptors (of
-            type qmf.console.SchemaMethod). To get a summary of a method, you
-            can simply print it. The _<span 
class="emphasis"><em>repr</em></span>_ function returns a
-            string that looks like a function prototype.
-          </p><pre class="programlisting">
-&gt;&gt;&gt; print methodList
-[purge(request)]
-&gt;&gt;&gt;
-</pre><p>
-            For the purposes of illustration, we'll use a more interesting
-            method available on the <span 
class="emphasis"><em>broker</em></span> object which represents
-            the connected Qpid message broker.
-          </p><pre class="programlisting">
-&gt;&gt;&gt; br = sess.getObjects(_class="broker", 
_package="org.apache.qpid.broker")[0]
-&gt;&gt;&gt; mlist = br.getMethods()
-&gt;&gt;&gt; for m in mlist:
-...   print m
-... 
-echo(sequence, body)
-connect(host, port, durable, authMechanism, username, password, transport)
-queueMoveMessages(srcQueue, destQueue, qty)
-&gt;&gt;&gt;
-</pre><p>
-            We have just learned that the <span 
class="emphasis"><em>broker</em></span> object has three
-            methods: <span class="emphasis"><em>echo</em></span>, <span 
class="emphasis"><em>connect</em></span>, and
-            <span class="emphasis"><em>queueMoveMessages</em></span>. We'll 
use the <span class="emphasis"><em>echo</em></span> method to
-            "ping" the broker.
-          </p><pre class="programlisting">
-&gt;&gt;&gt; result = br.echo(1, "Message Body")
-&gt;&gt;&gt; print result
-OK (0) - {'body': u'Message Body', 'sequence': 1}
-&gt;&gt;&gt; print result.status
-0
-&gt;&gt;&gt; print result.text
-OK
-&gt;&gt;&gt; print result.outArgs
-{'body': u'Message Body', 'sequence': 1}
-&gt;&gt;&gt;
-</pre><p>
-            In the above example, we have invoked the <span 
class="emphasis"><em>echo</em></span> method on
-            the instance of the broker designated by the proxy "br" with a
-            sequence argument of 1 and a body argument of "Message Body". The
-            result indicates success and contains the output arguments (in
-            this case copies of the input arguments).
-          </p><p>
-            To be more precise... Calling <span 
class="emphasis"><em>echo</em></span> on the proxy causes
-            the input arguments to be marshalled and sent to the remote agent
-            where the method is executed. Once the method execution
-            completes, the output arguments are marshalled and sent back to
-            the console to be stored in the method result.
-          </p><p>
-            You are probably wondering how you are supposed to know what
-            types the arguments are and which arguments are input, which are
-            output, or which are both. This will be addressed later in the
-            "Discovering what Kinds of Objects are Available" section.
-          </p></div></div></div><div class="section"><div 
class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a 
id="QMFPythonConsoleTutorial-AsynchronousConsoleOperations"></a>2.3.3.&#160;
-            Asynchronous
-            Console Operations
-          </h3></div></div></div><p>
-            QMF is built on top of a middleware messaging layer (Qpid
-            Messaging). Because of this, QMF can use some communication
-            patterns that are difficult to implement using network transports
-            like UDP, TCP, or SSL. One of these patterns is called the
-            <span class="emphasis"><em>Publication and 
Subscription</em></span> pattern (pub-sub for
-            short). In the pub-sub pattern, data sources <span 
class="emphasis"><em>publish</em></span>
-            information without a particular destination in mind. Data sinks
-            (destinations) <span class="emphasis"><em>subscribe</em></span> 
using a set of criteria that
-            describes what kind of data they are interested in receiving.
-            Data published by a source may be received by zero, one, or many
-            subscribers.
-          </p><p>
-            QMF uses the pub-sub pattern to distribute events, object
-            creation and deletion, and changes to properties and statistics.
-            A console application using the QMF Console API can receive these
-            asynchronous and unsolicited events and updates. This is useful
-            for applications that store and analyze events and/or statistics.
-            It is also useful for applications that react to certain events
-            or conditions.
-          </p><p>
-            Note that console applications may always use the synchronous
-            mechanisms.
-          </p><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 
class="title"><a 
id="QMFPythonConsoleTutorial-CreatingaConsoleClasstoReceiveAsynchronousData"></a>2.3.3.1.&#160;
-            Creating a Console Class to Receive Asynchronous Data
-          </h4></div></div></div><p>
-            Asynchronous API operation occurs when the console application
-            supplies a <span class="emphasis"><em>Console</em></span> object 
to the session manager. The
-            <span class="emphasis"><em>Console</em></span> object (which 
overrides the
-            <span class="emphasis"><em>qmf.console.Console</em></span> class) 
handles all asynchronously
-            arriving data. The <span class="emphasis"><em>Console</em></span> 
class has the following
-            methods. Any number of these methods may be overridden by the
-            console application. Any method that is not overridden defaults
-            to a null handler which takes no action when invoked.
-          </p><div class="table"><a id="idm139836370652160"></a><p 
class="title"><strong>Table&#160;2.4.&#160;QMF Python Console Class 
Methods</strong></p><div class="table-contents"><table border="1" summary="QMF 
Python Console Class Methods"><colgroup><col /><col /><col 
/></colgroup><tbody><tr><td>
-                  Method
-                </td><td>
-                  Arguments
-                </td><td>
-                  Invoked when...
-                </td></tr><tr><td>
-                  brokerConnected
-                </td><td>
-                  broker
-                </td><td>
-                  a connection to a broker is established
-                </td></tr><tr><td>
-                  brokerDisconnected
-                </td><td>
-                  broker
-                </td><td>
-                  a connection to a broker is lost
-                </td></tr><tr><td>
-                  newPackage
-                </td><td>
-                  name
-                </td><td>
-                  a new package is seen on the QMF bus
-                </td></tr><tr><td>
-                  newClass
-                </td><td>
-                  kind, classKey
-                </td><td>
-                  a new class (event or object) is seen on the QMF bus
-                </td></tr><tr><td>
-                  newAgent
-                </td><td>
-                  agent
-                </td><td>
-                  a new agent appears on the QMF bus
-                </td></tr><tr><td>
-                  delAgent
-                </td><td>
-                  agent
-                </td><td>
-                  an agent disconnects from the QMF bus
-                </td></tr><tr><td>
-                  objectProps
-                </td><td>
-                  broker, object
-                </td><td>
-                  the properties of an object are published
-                </td></tr><tr><td>
-                  objectStats
-                </td><td>
-                  broker, object
-                </td><td>
-                  the statistics of an object are published
-                </td></tr><tr><td>
-                  event
-                </td><td>
-                  broker, event
-                </td><td>
-                  an event is published
-                </td></tr><tr><td>
-                  heartbeat
-                </td><td>
-                  agent, timestamp
-                </td><td>
-                  a heartbeat is published by an agent
-                </td></tr><tr><td>
-                  brokerInfo
-                </td><td>
-                  broker
-                </td><td>
-                  information about a connected broker is available to be
-                  queried
-                </td></tr><tr><td>
-                  methodResponse
-                </td><td>
-                  broker, seq, response
-                </td><td>
-                  the result of an asynchronous method call is received
-                </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><br class="table-break" 
/><p>
-            Supplied with the API is a class called <span 
class="emphasis"><em>DebugConsole</em></span>.
-            This is a test <span class="emphasis"><em>Console</em></span> 
instance that overrides all of
-            the methods such that arriving asynchronous data is printed to
-            the screen. This can be used to see all of the arriving
-            asynchronous data.
-          </p></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 
class="title"><a 
id="QMFPythonConsoleTutorial-ReceivingEvents"></a>2.3.3.2.&#160;
-            Receiving
-            Events
-          </h4></div></div></div><p>
-            We'll start the example from the beginning to illustrate the
-            reception and handling of events. In this example, we will create
-            a <span class="emphasis"><em>Console</em></span> class that 
handles broker-connect,
-            broker-disconnect, and event messages. We will also allow the
-            session manager to manage the broker connection for us.
-          </p><p>
-            Begin by importing the necessary classes:
-          </p><pre class="programlisting">
-&gt;&gt;&gt; from qmf.console import Session, Console
-</pre><p>
-            Now, create a subclass of <span 
class="emphasis"><em>Console</em></span> that handles the three
-            message types:
-          </p><pre class="programlisting">
-&gt;&gt;&gt; class EventConsole(Console):
-...   def brokerConnected(self, broker):
-...     print "brokerConnected:", broker
-...   def brokerDisconnected(self, broker):
-...     print "brokerDisconnected:", broker
-...   def event(self, broker, event):
-...     print "event:", event
-...
-&gt;&gt;&gt;
-</pre><p>
-            Make an instance of the new class:
-          </p><pre class="programlisting">
-&gt;&gt;&gt; myConsole = EventConsole()
-</pre><p>
-            Create a <span class="emphasis"><em>Session</em></span> class 
using the console instance. In
-            addition, we shall request that the session manager do the
-            connection management for us. Notice also that we are requesting
-            that the session manager not receive objects or heartbeats. Since
-            this example is concerned only with events, we can optimize the
-            use of the messaging bus by telling the session manager not to
-            subscribe for object updates or heartbeats.
-          </p><pre class="programlisting">
-&gt;&gt;&gt; sess = Session(myConsole, manageConnections=True, 
rcvObjects=False, rcvHeartbeats=False)
-&gt;&gt;&gt; broker = sess.addBroker()
-&gt;&gt;&gt;
-</pre><p>
-            Once the broker is added, we will begin to receive asynchronous
-            events (assuming there is a functioning broker available to
-            connect to).
-          </p><pre class="programlisting">
-brokerConnected: Broker connected at: localhost:5672
-event: Thu Jan 29 19:53:19 2009 INFO  org.apache.qpid.broker:bind 
broker=localhost:5672 ...
-</pre></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 
class="title"><a 
id="QMFPythonConsoleTutorial-ReceivingObjects"></a>2.3.3.3.&#160;
-            Receiving
-            Objects
-          </h4></div></div></div><p>
-            To illustrate asynchronous handling of objects, a small console
-            program is supplied. The entire program is shown below for
-            convenience. We will then go through it part-by-part to explain
-            its design.
-          </p><p>
-            This console program receives object updates and displays a set
-            of statistics as they change. It focuses on broker queue objects.
-          </p><pre class="programlisting">
-# Import needed classes
-from qmf.console import Session, Console
-from time        import sleep
-
-# Declare a dictionary to map object-ids to queue names
-queueMap = {}
-
-# Customize the Console class to receive object updates.
-class MyConsole(Console):
-
-  # Handle property updates
-  def objectProps(self, broker, record):
-
-    # Verify that we have received a queue object.  Exit otherwise.
-    classKey = record.getClassKey()
-    if classKey.getClassName() != "queue":
-      return
-
-    # If this object has not been seen before, create a new mapping from 
objectID to name
-    oid = record.getObjectId()
-    if oid not in queueMap:
-      queueMap[oid] = record.name
-
-  # Handle statistic updates
-  def objectStats(self, broker, record):
-    
-    # Ignore updates for objects that are not in the map
-    oid = record.getObjectId()
-    if oid not in queueMap:
-      return
-
-    # Print the queue name and some statistics
-    print "%s: enqueues=%d dequeues=%d" % (queueMap[oid], 
record.msgTotalEnqueues, record.msgTotalDequeues)
-
-    # if the delete-time is non-zero, this object has been deleted.  Remove it 
from the map.
-    if record.getTimestamps()[2] &gt; 0:
-      queueMap.pop(oid)
-
-# Create an instance of the QMF session manager.  Set userBindings to True to 
allow
-# this program to choose which objects classes it is interested in.
-sess = Session(MyConsole(), manageConnections=True, rcvEvents=False, 
userBindings=True)
-
-# Register to receive updates for broker:queue objects.
-sess.bindClass("org.apache.qpid.broker", "queue")
-broker = sess.addBroker()
-
-# Suspend processing while the asynchronous operations proceed.
-try:
-  while True:
-    sleep(1)
-except:
-  pass
-
-# Disconnect the broker before exiting.
-sess.delBroker(broker)
-</pre><p>
-            Before going through the code in detail, it is important to
-            understand the differences between synchronous object access and
-            asynchronous object access. When objects are obtained
-            synchronously (using the <span 
class="emphasis"><em>getObjects</em></span> function), the
-            resulting proxy contains all of the object's attributes, both
-            properties and statistics. When object data is published
-            asynchronously, the properties and statistics are sent separately
-            and only when the session first connects or when the content
-            changes.
-          </p><p>
-            The script wishes to print the queue name with the updated
-            statistics, but the queue name is only present with the
-            properties. For this reason, the program needs to keep some state
-            to correlate property updates with their corresponding statistic
-            updates. This can be done using the <span 
class="emphasis"><em>ObjectId</em></span> that
-            uniquely identifies the object.
-          </p><pre class="programlisting">
-    # If this object has not been seen before, create a new mapping from 
objectID to name
-    oid = record.getObjectId()
-    if oid not in queueMap:
-      queueMap[oid] = record.name
-</pre><p>
-            The above code fragment gets the object ID from the proxy and
-            checks to see if it is in the map (i.e. has been seen before). If
-            it is not in the map, a new map entry is inserted mapping the
-            object ID to the queue's name.
-          </p><pre class="programlisting">
-    # if the delete-time is non-zero, this object has been deleted.  Remove it 
from the map.
-    if record.getTimestamps()[2] &gt; 0:
-      queueMap.pop(oid)
-</pre><p>
-            This code fragment detects the deletion of a managed object.
-            After reporting the statistics, it checks the timestamps of the
-            proxy. <span class="emphasis"><em>getTimestamps</em></span> 
returns a list of timestamps in the
-            order:
-          </p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" 
type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
-              <span class="emphasis"><em>Current</em></span> - The timestamp 
of the sending of this update.
-            </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-              <span class="emphasis"><em>Create</em></span> - The time of the 
object's creation
-            </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-              <span class="emphasis"><em>Delete</em></span> - The time of the 
object's deletion (or zero if
-              not deleted)
-            </p></li></ul></div><p>
-            This code structure is useful for getting information about
-            very-short-lived objects. It is possible that an object will be
-            created, used, and deleted within an update interval. In this
-            case, the property update will arrive first, followed by the
-            statistic update. Both will indicate that the object has been
-            deleted but a full accounting of the object's existence and final
-            state is reported.
-          </p><pre class="programlisting">
-# Create an instance of the QMF session manager.  Set userBindings to True to 
allow
-# this program to choose which objects classes it is interested in.
-sess = Session(MyConsole(), manageConnections=True, rcvEvents=False, 
userBindings=True)
-
-# Register to receive updates for broker:queue objects.
-sess.bindClass("org.apache.qpid.broker", "queue")
-</pre><p>
-            The above code is illustrative of the way a console application
-            can tune its use of the QMF bus. Note that <span 
class="emphasis"><em>rcvEvents</em></span> is
-            set to False. This prevents the reception of events. Note also
-            the use of <span 
class="emphasis"><em>userBindings=True</em></span> and the call to
-            <span class="emphasis"><em>sess.bindClass</em></span>. If <span 
class="emphasis"><em>userBindings</em></span> is set to False
-            (its default), the session will receive object updates for all
-            classes of object. In the case above, the application is only
-            interested in broker:queue objects and reduces its bus bandwidth
-            usage by requesting updates to only that class.
-            <span class="emphasis"><em>bindClass</em></span> may be called as 
many times as desired to add
-            classes to the list of subscribed classes.
-          </p></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 
class="title"><a 
id="QMFPythonConsoleTutorial-AsynchronousMethodCallsandMethodTimeouts"></a>2.3.3.4.&#160;
-            Asynchronous Method Calls and Method Timeouts
-          </h4></div></div></div><p>
-            Method calls can also be invoked asynchronously. This is useful
-            if a large number of calls needs to be made in a short time
-            because the console application will not need to wait for the
-            complete round-trip delay for each call.
-          </p><p>
-            Method calls are synchronous by default. They can be made
-            asynchronous by adding the keyword-argument _<span 
class="emphasis"><em>async=True</em></span>
-            to the method call.
-          </p><p>
-            In a synchronous method call, the return value is the method
-            result. When a method is called asynchronously, the return value
-            is a sequence number that can be used to correlate the eventual
-            result to the request. This sequence number is passed as an
-            argument to the <span 
class="emphasis"><em>methodResponse</em></span> function in the
-            <span class="emphasis"><em>Console</em></span> interface.
-          </p><p>
-            It is important to realize that the <span 
class="emphasis"><em>methodResponse</em></span>
-            function may be invoked before the asynchronous call returns.
-            Make sure your code is written to handle this possibility.
-          </p></div></div><div class="section"><div 
class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a 
id="QMFPythonConsoleTutorial-DiscoveringwhatKindsofObjectsareAvailable"></a>2.3.4.&#160;
-            Discovering what Kinds of Objects are Available
-          </h3></div></div></div><p /></div></div><div class="navfooter"><hr 
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(Implemented in C++)</a></li><li>1.4.&#160;Broker Federation</li></ul>
-
-        <div id="-middle-content">
-          <div class="docbook"><div class="navheader"><table 
summary="Navigation header" width="100%"><tr><th align="center" 
colspan="3">1.4.&#160;Broker Federation</th></tr><tr><td align="left" 
width="20%"><a accesskey="p" href="ch01s03.html">Prev</a>&#160;</td><th 
align="center" width="60%">Chapter&#160;1.&#160;
-      Running the AMQP Messaging Broker
-    </th><td align="right" width="20%">&#160;<a accesskey="n" 
href="chap-Messaging_User_Guide-Security.html">Next</a></td></tr></table><hr 
/></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 
class="title"><a 
id="chap-Messaging_User_Guide-Broker_Federation"></a>1.4.&#160;Broker 
Federation</h2></div></div></div><p>
-               <em class="firstterm">Broker Federation</em> allows messaging 
networks to be defined by creating <em class="firstterm">message routes</em>, 
in which messages in one broker (the <em class="firstterm">source broker</em>) 
are automatically routed to another broker (the <em 
class="firstterm">destination broker</em>). These routes may be defined between 
exchanges in the two brokers (the <em class="firstterm">source exchange</em> 
and the <em class="firstterm">destination exchange</em>), or from a queue in 
the source broker (the <em class="firstterm">source queue</em>) to an exchange 
in the destination broker. Message routes are unidirectional; when 
bidirectional flow is needed, one route is created in each direction. Routes 
can be durable or transient. A durable route survives broker restarts, 
restoring a route as soon as both the source broker and the destination are 
available. If the connection to a destination is lost, messages associated with 
a durable route continue to accumulate o
 n the source, so they can be retrieved when the connection is reestablished.
-       </p><p>
-               Broker Federation can be used to build large messaging 
networks, with many brokers, one route at a time. If network connectivity 
permits, an entire distributed messaging network can be configured from a 
single location. The rules used for routing can be changed dynamically as 
servers change, responsibilities change, at different times of day, or to 
reflect other changing conditions.
-       </p><p>
-               Broker Federation is useful in a wide variety of scenarios. 
Some of these have to do with functional organization; for instance, brokers 
may be organized by geography, service type, or priority. Here are some use 
cases for federation: 
-               </p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" 
type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
-                                       Geography: Customer requests may be 
routed to a processing location close to the customer.
-                               </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-                                       Service Type: High value customers may 
be routed to more responsive servers.
-                               </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-                                       Load balancing: Routing among brokers 
may be changed dynamically to account for changes in actual or anticipated load.
-                               </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-                                       High Availability: Routing may be 
changed to a new broker if an existing broker becomes unavailable.
-                               </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-                                       WAN Connectivity: Federated routes may 
connect disparate locations across a wide area network, while clients connect 
to brokers on their own local area network. Each broker can provide persistent 
queues that can hold messages even if there are gaps in WAN connectivity.
-                               </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-                                       Functional Organization: The flow of 
messages among software subsystems can be configured to mirror the logical 
structure of a distributed application.
-                               </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-                                       Replicated Exchanges: High-function 
exchanges like the XML exchange can be replicated to scale performance.
-                               </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-                                       Interdepartmental Workflow: The flow of 
messages among brokers can be configured to mirror interdepartmental workflow 
at an organization.
-                               </p></li></ul></div><p>
-
-       </p><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 
class="title"><a 
id="sect-Messaging_User_Guide-Broker_Federation-Message_Routes"></a>1.4.1.&#160;Message
 Routes</h3></div></div></div><p>
-                       Broker Federation is done by creating message routes. 
The destination for a route is always an exchange on the destination broker. By 
default, a message route is created by configuring the destination broker, 
which then contacts the source broker to subscribe to the source queue. This is 
called a <em class="firstterm">pull route</em>. It is also possible to create a 
route by configuring the source broker, which then contacts the destination 
broker in order to send messages. This is called a <em class="firstterm">push 
route</em>, and is particularly useful when the destination broker may not be 
available at the time the messaging route is configured, or when a large number 
of routes are created with the same destination exchange.
-               </p><p>
-                       The source for a route can be either an exchange or a 
queue on the source broker. If a route is between two exchanges, the routing 
criteria can be given explicitly, or the bindings of the destination exchange 
can be used to determine the routing criteria. To support this functionality, 
there are three kinds of message routes: queue routes, exchange routes, and 
dynamic exchange routes.
-               </p><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 
class="title"><a 
id="sect-Messaging_User_Guide-Message_Routes-Queue_Routes"></a>1.4.1.1.&#160;Queue
 Routes</h4></div></div></div><p>
-                               <em class="firstterm">Queue Routes</em> route 
all messages from a source queue to a destination exchange. If message 
acknowledgement is enabled, messages are removed from the queue when they have 
been received by the destination exchange; if message acknowledgement is off, 
messages are removed from the queue when sent.
-                       </p></div><div class="section"><div 
class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a 
id="sect-Messaging_User_Guide-Message_Routes-Exchange_Routes"></a>1.4.1.2.&#160;Exchange
 Routes</h4></div></div></div><p>
-                               <em class="firstterm">Exchange routes</em> 
route messages from a source exchange to a destination exchange, using a 
binding key (which is optional for a fanout exchange).
-                       </p><p>
-                               Internally, creating an exchange route creates 
a private queue (auto-delete, exclusive) on the source broker to hold messages 
that are to be routed to the destination broker, binds this private queue to 
the source broker exchange, and subscribes the destination broker to the queue.
-                       </p></div><div class="section"><div 
class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a 
id="sect-Messaging_User_Guide-Message_Routes-Dynamic_Exchange_Routes"></a>1.4.1.3.&#160;Dynamic
 Exchange Routes</h4></div></div></div><p>
-                               Dynamic exchange routes allow a client to 
create bindings to an exchange on one broker, and receive messages that satisfy 
the conditions of these bindings not only from the exchange to which the client 
created the binding, but also from other exchanges that are connected to it 
using dynamic exchange routes. If the client modifies the bindings for a given 
exchange, they are also modified for dynamic exchange routes associated with 
that exchange.
-                       </p><p>
-                               <em class="firstterm">Dynamic exchange 
routes</em> apply all the bindings of a destination exchange to a source 
exchange, so that any message that would match one of these bindings is routed 
to the destination exchange. If bindings are added or removed from the 
destination exchange, these changes are reflected in the dynamic exchange route 
-- when the destination broker creates a binding with a given binding key, this 
is reflected in the route, and when the destination broker drops a binding with 
a binding key, the route no longer incurs the overhead of transferring messages 
that match the binding key among brokers. If two exchanges have dynamic 
exchange routes to each other, then all bindings in each exchange are reflected 
in the dynamic exchange route of the other. In a dynamic exchange route, the 
source and destination exchanges must have the same exchange type, and they 
must have the same name; for instance, if the source exchange is a direct 
exchange, the destination exchan
 ge must also be a direct exchange, and the names must match.
-                       </p><p>
-                               Internally, dynamic exchange routes are 
implemented in the same way as exchange routes, except that the bindings used 
to implement dynamic exchange routes are modified if the bindings in the 
destination exchange change.
-                       </p><p>
-                               A dynamic exchange route is always a pull 
route. It can never be a push route.
-                       </p></div></div><div class="section"><div 
class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a 
id="sect-Messaging_User_Guide-Broker_Federation-Federation_Topologies"></a>1.4.2.&#160;Federation
 Topologies</h3></div></div></div><p>
-                       A federated network is generally a tree, star, or line, 
using bidirectional links (implemented as a pair of unidirectional links) 
between any two brokers. A ring topology is also possible, if only 
unidirectional links are used.
-               </p><p>
-                       Every message transfer takes time. For better 
performance, you should minimize the number of brokers between the message 
origin and final destination. In most cases, tree or star topologies do this 
best.
-               </p><p>
-                       For any pair of nodes A,B in a federated network, there 
should be only one path from A to B. If there is more than one path, message 
loops can cause duplicate message transmission and flood the federated network. 
The topologies discussed above do not have message loops. A ring topology with 
bidirectional links is one example of a topology that does cause this problem, 
because a given broker can receive the same message from two different brokers. 
Mesh topologies can also cause this problem.
-               </p></div><div class="section"><div 
class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a 
id="sect-Messaging_User_Guide-Broker_Federation-Federation_among_High_Availability_Message_Clusters"></a>1.4.3.&#160;Federation
 among High Availability Message Clusters</h3></div></div></div><p>
-                       Federation is generally used together with High 
Availability Message Clusters, using clusters to provide high availability on 
each LAN, and federation to route messages among the clusters. Because message 
state is replicated within a cluster, it makes little sense to define message 
routes between brokers in the same cluster.
-               </p><p>
-                       To create a message route between two clusters, simply 
create a route between any one broker in the first cluster and any one broker 
in the second cluster. Each broker in a given cluster can use message routes 
defined for another broker in the same cluster. If the broker for which a 
message route is defined should fail, another broker in the same cluster can 
restore the message route.
-               </p></div><div class="section"><div 
class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a 
id="sect-Messaging_User_Guide-Broker_Federation-The_qpid_route_Utility"></a>1.4.4.&#160;The
 qpid-route Utility</h3></div></div></div><p>
-                       <span 
class="command"><strong>qpid-route</strong></span> is a command line utility 
used to configure federated networks of brokers and to view the status and 
topology of networks. It can be used to configure routes among any brokers that 
<span class="command"><strong>qpid-route</strong></span> can connect to.
-               </p><p>
-                       The syntax of <span 
class="command"><strong>qpid-route</strong></span> is as follows:
-               </p><pre class="screen">
-qpid-route [OPTIONS] dynamic add &lt;dest-broker&gt; &lt;src-broker&gt; 
&lt;exchange&gt; 
-qpid-route [OPTIONS] dynamic del &lt;dest-broker&gt; &lt;src-broker&gt; 
&lt;exchange&gt;
-
-qpid-route [OPTIONS] route add &lt;dest-broker&gt; &lt;src-broker&gt; 
&lt;exchange&gt; &lt;routing-key&gt; 
-qpid-route [OPTIONS] route del &lt;dest-broker&gt; &lt;src-broker&gt; 
&lt;exchange&gt; &lt;routing-key&gt;
-
-qpid-route [OPTIONS] queue add &lt;dest-broker&gt; &lt;src-broker&gt; 
&lt;dest-exchange&gt;  &lt;src-queue&gt;
-qpid-route [OPTIONS] queue del &lt;dest-broker&gt; &lt;src-broker&gt; 
&lt;dest-exchange&gt;  &lt;src-queue&gt;
-
-qpid-route [OPTIONS] list  [&lt;broker&gt;]
-qpid-route [OPTIONS] flush [&lt;broker&gt;]    
-qpid-route [OPTIONS] map   [&lt;broker&gt;]
-
-
-qpid-route [OPTIONS] list connections [&lt;broker&gt;]
-</pre><p>
-                       The syntax for <span 
class="command"><strong>broker</strong></span>, <span 
class="command"><strong>dest-broker</strong></span>, and <span 
class="command"><strong>src-broker</strong></span> is as follows:
-               </p><pre class="screen">
-[username/password@] hostname | ip-address [:&lt;port&gt;]
-</pre><p>
-                       The following are all valid examples of the above 
syntax: <span class="command"><strong>localhost</strong></span>, <span 
class="command"><strong>10.1.1.7:10000</strong></span>, <span 
class="command"><strong>broker-host:10000</strong></span>, <span 
class="command"><strong>guest/guest@localhost</strong></span>.
-               </p><p>
-                       These are the options for <span 
class="command"><strong>qpid-route</strong></span>:
-               </p><div class="table"><a 
id="tabl-Messaging_User_Guide-The_qpid_route_Utility-qpid_route_options"></a><p 
class="title"><strong>Table&#160;1.9.&#160;<span 
class="command">qpid-route</span> options</strong></p><div 
class="table-contents"><table border="1" summary="qpid-route 
options"><colgroup><col align="left" class="c1" /><col align="left" class="c2" 
/></colgroup><tbody><tr><td align="left">
-                                                       <span 
class="command"><strong>-v</strong></span>
-                                               </td><td align="left">
-                                                       Verbose output.
-                                               </td></tr><tr><td align="left">
-                                                       <span 
class="command"><strong>-q</strong></span>
-                                               </td><td align="left">
-                                                       Quiet output, will not 
print duplicate warnings.
-                                               </td></tr><tr><td align="left">
-                                                       <span 
class="command"><strong>-d</strong></span>
-                                               </td><td align="left">
-                                                       Make the route durable.
-                                               </td></tr><tr><td align="left">
-                                                       <span 
class="command"><strong> --timeout N</strong></span>
-                                               </td><td align="left">
-                                                       Maximum time to wait 
when qpid-route connects to a broker, in seconds. Default is 10 seconds.
-                                               </td></tr><tr><td align="left">
-                                                       <span 
class="command"><strong>--ack N</strong></span>
-                                               </td><td align="left">
-                                                       Acknowledge transfers 
of routed messages in batches of N. Default is 0 (no acknowledgements). Setting 
to 1 or greater enables acknowledgements; when using acknowledgements, values 
of N greater than 1 can significnantly improve performance, especially if there 
is significant network latency between the two brokers.
-                                               </td></tr><tr><td align="left">
-                                                       <span 
class="command"><strong>-s [ --src-local ]</strong></span>
-                                               </td><td align="left">
-                                                       Configure the route in 
the source broker (create a push route).
-                                               </td></tr><tr><td align="left">
-                                                       <span 
class="command"><strong>-t &lt;transport&gt; [ --transport 
&lt;transport&gt;]</strong></span>
-                                               </td><td align="left">
-                                                       Transport protocol to 
be used for the route. 
-                                                       <div 
class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li 
class="listitem"><p>
-                                                                               
tcp (default)
-                                                                       
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-                                                                               
ssl
-                                                                       
</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-                                                                               
rdma
-                                                                       
</p></li></ul></div>
-
-                                               
</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><br class="table-break" /><div 
class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a 
id="sect-Messaging_User_Guide-The_qpid_route_Utility-Creating_and_Deleting_Queue_Routes"></a>1.4.4.1.&#160;Creating
 and Deleting Queue Routes</h4></div></div></div><p>
-                               The syntax for creating and deleting queue 
routes is as follows:
-                       </p><pre class="screen">
-qpid-route [OPTIONS] queue add &lt;dest-broker&gt; &lt;src-broker&gt; 
&lt;dest-exchange&gt; &lt;src-queue&gt;
-qpid-route [OPTIONS] queue del &lt;dest-broker&gt; &lt;src-broker&gt; 
&lt;dest-exchange&gt; &lt;src-queue&gt;
-</pre><p>
-                               For instance, the following creates a queue 
route that routes all messages from the queue named <span 
class="command"><strong>public</strong></span> on the source broker <span 
class="command"><strong>localhost:10002</strong></span> to the <span 
class="command"><strong>amq.fanout</strong></span> exchange on the destination 
broker <span class="command"><strong>localhost:10001</strong></span>:
-                       </p><pre class="screen">
-$ qpid-route queue add localhost:10001 localhost:10002 amq.fanout public
-</pre><p>
-                               If the <span 
class="command"><strong>-d</strong></span> option is specified, this queue 
route is persistent, and will be restored if one or both of the brokers is 
restarted:
-                       </p><pre class="screen">
-$ qpid-route -d queue add localhost:10001 localhost:10002 amq.fanout public
-</pre><p>
-                               The <span 
class="command"><strong>del</strong></span> command takes the same arguments as 
the <span class="command"><strong>add</strong></span> command. The following 
command deletes the queue route described above:
-                       </p><pre class="screen">
-$ qpid-route queue del localhost:10001 localhost:10002 amq.fanout public
-</pre></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 
class="title"><a 
id="sect-Messaging_User_Guide-The_qpid_route_Utility-Creating_and_Deleting_Exchange_Routes"></a>1.4.4.2.&#160;Creating
 and Deleting Exchange Routes</h4></div></div></div><p>
-                               The syntax for creating and deleting exchange 
routes is as follows:
-                       </p><pre class="screen">
-qpid-route [OPTIONS] route add &lt;dest-broker&gt; &lt;src-broker&gt; 
&lt;exchange&gt; &lt;routing-key&gt; 
-qpid-route [OPTIONS] route del &lt;dest-broker&gt; &lt;src-broker&gt; 
&lt;exchange&gt; &lt;routing-key&gt;
-qpid-route [OPTIONS] flush [&lt;broker&gt;]
-</pre><p>
-                               For instance, the following creates an exchange 
route that routes messages that match the binding key <span 
class="command"><strong>global.#</strong></span> from the <span 
class="command"><strong>amq.topic</strong></span> exchange on the source broker 
<span class="command"><strong>localhost:10002</strong></span> to the <span 
class="command"><strong>amq.topic</strong></span> exchange on the destination 
broker <span class="command"><strong>localhost:10001</strong></span>:
-                       </p><pre class="screen">
-$ qpid-route route add localhost:10001 localhost:10002 amq.topic global.#
-</pre><p>
-                               In many applications, messages published to the 
destination exchange should also be routed to the source exchange. This is 
accomplished by creating a second exchange route, reversing the roles of the 
two exchanges:
-                       </p><pre class="screen">
-$ qpid-route route add localhost:10002 localhost:10001 amq.topic global.#
-</pre><p>
-                               If the <span 
class="command"><strong>-d</strong></span> option is specified, the exchange 
route is persistent, and will be restored if one or both of the brokers is 
restarted:
-                       </p><pre class="screen">
-$ qpid-route -d route add localhost:10001 localhost:10002 amq.fanout public
-</pre><p>
-                               The <span 
class="command"><strong>del</strong></span> command takes the same arguments as 
the <span class="command"><strong>add</strong></span> command. The following 
command deletes the first exchange route described above:
-                       </p><pre class="screen">
-$ qpid-route route del localhost:10001 localhost:10002 amq.topic global.#
-</pre></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 
class="title"><a 
id="sect-Messaging_User_Guide-The_qpid_route_Utility-Deleting_all_routes_for_a_broker"></a>1.4.4.3.&#160;Deleting
 all routes for a broker</h4></div></div></div><p>
-                               Use the <span 
class="command"><strong>flush</strong></span> command to delete all routes for 
a given broker:
-                       </p><pre class="screen">
-qpid-route [OPTIONS] flush [&lt;broker&gt;]
-</pre><p>
-                               For instance, the following command deletes all 
routes for the broker <span 
class="command"><strong>localhost:10001</strong></span>:
-                       </p><pre class="screen">
-$ qpid-route flush localhost:10001
-</pre></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 
class="title"><a 
id="sect-Messaging_User_Guide-The_qpid_route_Utility-Creating_and_Deleting_Dynamic_Exchange_Routes"></a>1.4.4.4.&#160;Creating
 and Deleting Dynamic Exchange Routes</h4></div></div></div><p>
-                               The syntax for creating and deleting dynamic 
exchange routes is as follows:
-                       </p><pre class="screen">
-qpid-route [OPTIONS] dynamic add &lt;dest-broker&gt; &lt;src-broker&gt; 
&lt;exchange&gt; 
-qpid-route [OPTIONS] dynamic del &lt;dest-broker&gt; &lt;src-broker&gt; 
&lt;exchange&gt;
-</pre><p>
-                               In the following examples, we will route 
messages from a topic exchange. We will create a new topic exchange and 
federate it so that we are not affected by other all clients that use the 
built-in <span class="command"><strong>amq.topic</strong></span> exchange. The 
following commands create a new topic exchange on each of two brokers:
-                       </p><pre class="screen">
-$ qpid-config -a localhost:10003 add exchange topic fed.topic
-$ qpid-config -a localhost:10004 add exchange topic fed.topic
-</pre><p>
-                               Now let's create a dynamic exchange route that 
routes messages from the <span 
class="command"><strong>fed.topic</strong></span> exchange on the source broker 
<span class="command"><strong>localhost:10004</strong></span> to the <span 
class="command"><strong>fed.topic</strong></span> exchange on the destination 
broker <span class="command"><strong>localhost:10003</strong></span> if they 
match any binding on the destination broker's <span 
class="command"><strong>fed.topic</strong></span> exchange:
-                       </p><pre class="screen">
-$ qpid-route dynamic add localhost:10003 localhost:10004 fed.topic
-</pre><p>
-                               Internally, this creates a private autodelete 
queue on the source broker, and binds that queue to the <span 
class="command"><strong>fed.topic</strong></span> exchange on the source 
broker, using each binding associated with the <span 
class="command"><strong>fed.topic</strong></span> exchange on the destination 
broker.
-                       </p><p>
-                               In many applications, messages published to the 
destination exchange should also be routed to the source exchange. This is 
accomplished by creating a second dynamic exchange route, reversing the roles 
of the two exchanges:
-                       </p><pre class="screen">
-$ qpid-route dynamic add localhost:10004 localhost:10003 fed.topic
-</pre><p>
-                               If the <span 
class="command"><strong>-d</strong></span> option is specified, the exchange 
route is persistent, and will be restored if one or both of the brokers is 
restarted:
-                       </p><pre class="screen">
-$ qpid-route -d dynamic add localhost:10004 localhost:10003 fed.topic
-</pre><p>
-                               When an exchange route is durable, the private 
queue used to store messages for the route on the source exchange is also 
durable. If the connection between the brokers is lost, messages for the 
destination exchange continue to accumulate until it can be restored.
-                       </p><p>
-                               The <span 
class="command"><strong>del</strong></span> command takes the same arguments as 
the <span class="command"><strong>add</strong></span> command. The following 
command deletes the first exchange route described above:
-                       </p><pre class="screen">
-$ qpid-route dynamic del localhost:10004 localhost:10003 fed.topic
-</pre><p>
-                               Internally, this deletes the bindings on the 
source exchange for the the private queues associated with the message route.
-                       </p></div><div class="section"><div 
class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a 
id="sect-Messaging_User_Guide-The_qpid_route_Utility-Viewing_Routes"></a>1.4.4.5.&#160;Viewing
 Routes</h4></div></div></div><p>
-                               The <span class="command"><strong>route 
list</strong></span> command shows the routes associated with an individual 
broker. For instance, suppose we have created the following two routes:
-                       </p><pre class="screen">
-$ qpid-route dynamic add localhost:10003 localhost:10004 fed.topic
-$ qpid-route dynamic add localhost:10004 localhost:10003 fed.topic
-</pre><p>
-                               We can now use <span 
class="command"><strong>route list</strong></span> to show all routes for the 
broker <span class="command"><strong>localhost:10003</strong></span>:
-                       </p><pre class="screen">
-$ qpid-route route list localhost:10003
-localhost:10003 localhost:10004 fed.topic &lt;dynamic&gt;
-</pre><p>
-                               Note that this shows only one of the two routes 
we created, the route for which <span 
class="command"><strong>localhost:10003</strong></span> is a destination. If we 
want to see the route for which <span 
class="command"><strong>localhost:10004</strong></span> is a destination, we 
need to do another route list:
-                       </p><pre class="screen">
-$ qpid-route route list localhost:10004
-localhost:10004 localhost:10003 fed.topic &lt;dynamic&gt;
-</pre><p>
-                               The <span class="command"><strong>route 
map</strong></span> command shows all routes associated with a broker, and 
recursively displays all routes for brokers involved in federation 
relationships with the given broker. For instance, here is the output for the 
two brokers configured above:
-                       </p><pre class="screen">
-$ qpid-route route map localhost:10003
-
-Finding Linked Brokers:
-    localhost:10003... Ok
-    localhost:10004... Ok
-
-Dynamic Routes:
-
-  Exchange fed.topic:
-    localhost:10004 &lt;=&gt; localhost:10003
-
-Static Routes:
-  none found
-</pre><p>
-                               Note that the two dynamic exchange links are 
displayed as though they were one bidirectional link. The <span 
class="command"><strong>route map</strong></span> command is particularly 
helpful for larger, more complex networks. Let's configure a somewhat more 
complex network with 16 dynamic exchange routes:
-                       </p><pre class="screen">
-qpid-route dynamic add localhost:10001 localhost:10002 fed.topic
-qpid-route dynamic add localhost:10002 localhost:10001 fed.topic
-
-qpid-route dynamic add localhost:10003 localhost:10002 fed.topic
-qpid-route dynamic add localhost:10002 localhost:10003 fed.topic
-
-qpid-route dynamic add localhost:10004 localhost:10002 fed.topic
-qpid-route dynamic add localhost:10002 localhost:10004 fed.topic
-
-qpid-route dynamic add localhost:10002 localhost:10005 fed.topic
-qpid-route dynamic add localhost:10005 localhost:10002 fed.topic
-
-qpid-route dynamic add localhost:10005 localhost:10006 fed.topic
-qpid-route dynamic add localhost:10006 localhost:10005 fed.topic
-
-qpid-route dynamic add localhost:10006 localhost:10007 fed.topic
-qpid-route dynamic add localhost:10007 localhost:10006 fed.topic
-
-qpid-route dynamic add localhost:10006 localhost:10008 fed.topic
-qpid-route dynamic add localhost:10008 localhost:10006 fed.topic
-</pre><p>
-                               Now we can use <span 
class="command"><strong>route map</strong></span> starting with any one broker, 
and see the entire network:
-                       </p><pre class="screen">
-$ ./qpid-route route map localhost:10001
-
-Finding Linked Brokers:
-    localhost:10001... Ok
-    localhost:10002... Ok
-    localhost:10003... Ok
-    localhost:10004... Ok
-    localhost:10005... Ok
-    localhost:10006... Ok
-    localhost:10007... Ok
-    localhost:10008... Ok
-
-Dynamic Routes:
-
-  Exchange fed.topic:
-    localhost:10002 &lt;=&gt; localhost:10001
-    localhost:10003 &lt;=&gt; localhost:10002
-    localhost:10004 &lt;=&gt; localhost:10002
-    localhost:10005 &lt;=&gt; localhost:10002
-    localhost:10006 &lt;=&gt; localhost:10005
-    localhost:10007 &lt;=&gt; localhost:10006
-    localhost:10008 &lt;=&gt; localhost:10006
-
-Static Routes:
-  none found
-</pre></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 
class="title"><a 
id="sect-Messaging_User_Guide-The_qpid_route_Utility-Resilient_Connections"></a>1.4.4.6.&#160;Resilient
 Connections</h4></div></div></div><p>
-                               When a broker route is created, or when a 
durable broker route is restored after broker restart, a connection is created 
between the source broker and the destination broker. The connections used 
between brokers are called <em class="firstterm">resilient connections</em>; if 
the connection fails due to a communication error, it attempts to reconnect. 
The retry interval begins at 2 seconds and, as more attempts are made, grows to 
64 seconds, and continues to retry every 64 seconds thereafter. If the 
connection fails due to an authentication problem, it will not continue to 
retry.
-                       </p><p>
-                               The command <span class="command"><strong>list 
connections</strong></span> can be used to show the resilient connections for a 
broker:
-                       </p><pre class="screen">
-$ qpid-route list connections localhost:10001
-
-Host            Port    Transport Durable  State             Last Error
-=============================================================================
-localhost       10002   tcp          N     Operational       
-localhost       10003   tcp          N     Operational       
-localhost       10009   tcp          N     Waiting           Connection refused
-</pre><p>
-                               In the above output, <span 
class="command"><strong>Last Error</strong></span> contains the string 
representation of the last connection error received for the connection. <span 
class="command"><strong>State</strong></span> represents the state of the 
connection, and may be one of the following values:
-                       </p><div class="table"><a 
id="tabl-Messaging_User_Guide-Resilient_Connections-State_values_in_qpid_route_list_connections"></a><p
 class="title"><strong>Table&#160;1.10.&#160;State values in <span 
class="command">$ qpid-route list connections</span></strong></p><div 
class="table-contents"><table border="1" summary="State values in $ qpid-route 
list connections"><colgroup><col /><col /></colgroup><tbody><tr><td 
align="left">
-                                                               Waiting
-                                                       </td><td align="left">
-                                                               Waiting before 
attempting to reconnect.
-                                                       </td></tr><tr><td 
align="left">
-                                                               Connecting
-                                                       </td><td align="left">
-                                                               Attempting to 
establish the connection.
-                                                       </td></tr><tr><td 
align="left">
-                                                               Operational
-                                                       </td><td align="left">
-                                                               The connection 
has been established and can be used.
-                                                       </td></tr><tr><td 
align="left">
-                                                               Failed
-                                                       </td><td align="left">
-                                                               The connection 
failed and will not retry (usually because authentication failed).
-                                                       </td></tr><tr><td 
align="left">
-                                                               Closed
-                                                       </td><td align="left">
-                                                               The connection 
has been closed and will soon be deleted.
-                                                       </td></tr><tr><td 
align="left">
-                                                               Passive
-                                                       </td><td align="left">
-                                                               If a cluster is 
federated to another cluster, only one of the nodes has an actual connection to 
remote node. Other nodes in the cluster have a passive connection.
-                                                       
</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><br class="table-break" 
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