On 2/26/2018 10:39 AM, Adam Petcher wrote:
If it is not widely used by other classes, please have these methods in
the class where is get called. The sun.security.util is exported to
other modules as well, we may not want to add stuff into this package
unless it is really necessary.
See inline below.
On 2/23/2018 12:46 PM, Xuelei Fan wrote:
I'm not very sure how widely this utilities will be used in the
future. Looks like only BigIntegerModuloP uses this classes. I may
prefer to define private methods for byte array swap in
It is also used by XDHPublicKeyImpl (in the XDH code review). XDH public
keys are represented as BigInteger, and I use the array reverse method
to convert encoded keys to BigInteger.
I did not get the point about the need to avoid branching. Can you have
void conditionalSwapWith(MutableIntegerModuloP b, int swap);
As the 'swap' parameter can only be 0 or 1, could it be a boolean
I couldn't come up with a way to implement this without branching when
the swap parameter is boolean. See IntegerPolynomial.conditionalSwap to
see how this is implemented in arithmetic with an int swap argument. If
you (or anyone) can think of a way to do this with boolean, let me know.
I added a sentence to the comment above conditionalSwapWith that
describes why it is an int instead of a boolean.
Except the conditionalSwapWith() method, I did not get the points why
we need a mutable version. Would you please have more description of
The comment above the class definition has this sentence:
"This interface can be used to improve performance and avoid the
allocation of a large number of temporary objects."
Do you need more information than this in the comments? The performance
motivation is so that a.add(b).multiply(c)... can be done without
allocating a new buffer for each operation. For example, without mutable
field elements, an X25519 point multiplication would allocate around
4,300 temporary arrays totaling 350,000 bytes. If I remember correctly,
switching the X25519 implementation to mutable field elements reduced
the point multiplication time by about half.
I see your point. The benefits is obviously.
OK, why you need the immutable version then? Sounds like the mutable
version interface is sufficient, including performance. If an immutable
version is really needed, we can have the implementation making the
decision. Accordingly, the conditionalSwapWith() can be defined as
optional method, if it is not required to be implemented in immutable
It's confusing to me that the immutable and mutable and the base
versions/interfaces mixed together. It would be nice if we can simplify
the interface a little bit.
For internal APIs, sometimes we don't want the same quality level as
public APIs. I think this set of class will be widely used by new EC
curves, ChaCha20/Poly1305, or more in the future. It would be nice if
we could do it good at the beginning.
I was not meant to say the function of the method. I meant that the
method name is a little bit misleading, not very straightforward to me.
default byte addModPowerTwo(IntegerModuloP_Base b, int len)
void addModPowerTwo(IntegerModuloP_Base b, byte result);
For the first sign of the method names, I thought it is to calculate
as "(this + b) ^ 2 mod m".
To be precise, it calculates "((this % p) + (b % p)) % 2^m" (where p is
the prime that defines the field, and m is the desired length, in bits).
Note that the addition here is normal integer addition (not addition in
This operation is not used in XDH, but it is used in Poly1305 to add the
AES encryption of a nonce to a field element. So you can get more
information about this operation by reading the Poly1305 paper/RFC.
Does it mean if I perform a addition, and cannot get the byte array in
the following step?
Besides, what's the benefits of the two methods? Could we just use:
No, because that would calculate "((this + b) mod p) mod 2^m". The value
of (this + b) can be larger than p, so this would not produce the
I guess, but not very sure, it is for constant time calculation. If
the function is required, could it be renamed as:
// the result is inside of the size range
IntegerModuloP addModSize(IntegerModuloP_Base b, int size)
// the result is wrapped if outside of the size range
IntegerModuloP addOnWrap(IntegerModuloP_Base b, int size)
and the use may look like:
Any attempt to perform the addition in IntegerModuloP and then pull out
the byte array will not work.
that = this.add(b);
byte bs = that.asByteArray(); // does not work?
byte bs = that.asByteArray(length); // does not work?
byte bs = that.asByteArray(byteArray); // does not work?
This class can only represent field
elements, so the sum would be in the field, which is not what we want.
I did not get the point. If getting an add result, the add is done (sum
in the field). Did you have an example that pulling out the byte array
will not work?
Will review the rest when I understand more about the interfaces design.
On 1/30/2018 8:52 AM, Adam Petcher wrote:
On 1/26/2018 4:06 PM, Adam Petcher wrote:
This is a code review for the field arithmetic that will be used in
implementations of X25519/X448 key agreement, the Poly1305
authenticator, and EdDSA signatures. I believe that the library has
all the features necessary for X25519/X448 and Poly1305, and I
expect at most a couple of minor enhancements will be required to
support EdDSA. There is no public API for this library, so we can
change it in the future to suit the needs of new algorithms without
breaking compatibility with external code. Still, I made an attempt
to clearly structure and document the (internal) API, and I want to
make sure it is understandable and easy to use.
This is not a general-purpose modular arithmetic library. It will
only work well in circumstances where the sequence of operations is
restricted, and where the prime that defines the field has some
useful structure. Moreover, each new field will require some
field-specific code that takes into account the structure of the
prime and the way the field is used in the application. The initial
implementation includes a field for Poly1305 and the fields for
X25519/X448 which should also work for EdDSA.
The benefits of using this library are that it is much more
efficient than using similar operations in BigInteger. Also, many
operations are branch-free, making them suitable for use in a
side-channel resistant implementation that does not branch on secrets.
To provide some context, I have attached a code snippet describing
how this library can be used. The snippet is the constant-time
Montgomery ladder from my X25519/X448 implementation, which I expect
to be out for review soon. X25519/X448 only uses standard arithmetic
operations, and the more unusual features (e.g. add modulo a power
of 2) are needed by Poly1305.
The field arithmetic (for all fields) is implemented using a 32-bit
representation similar to the one described in the Ed448 paper
(in the "Implementation on 32-bit platforms" section). Though my
implementation uses signed limbs, and grade-school multiplication
instead of Karatsuba. The argument for correctness is essentially
the same for all three fields: the magnitude of each 64-bit limb is
at most 2^(k-1) after reduction, except for the last limb which may
have a magnitude of up to 2^k. The values of k are between 26 to 28
(depending on the field), and we can calculate that the maximum
magnitude for any limb during an add-multiply-carry-reduce sequence
is always less than 2^63. Therefore, no overflow occurs and all
operations are correct.
Process note: this enhancement is part of JEP 324 (Key Agreement
with Curve25519 and Curve448). When this code review is complete,
nothing will happen until all other work for this JEP is complete,
and the JEP is accepted as part of some release. This means that
this code will be pushed to the repo along with the X25519/X448 code
that uses it.