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Hi list,

Interesting. Great work! I had been looking *generic* predicate
encryption for some time. Encryption over specific predicates is much
older. Malware (e.g., virus) and software protection schemes have been
using some sort of "predicate encryption" or "trigger" for over two
decades in order to obfuscate code. For example, an old virus used to
scan hard drives looking for a BBS configuration files in a similar
manner and some software protection schemes have encrypted pieces of
code that are decrypted only if some integrity checks (predicates) over
other pieces of the program are passed.

Triggers/predicates are very promising. Yet, they are only useful in
certain applications, since eavesdropping one decryption is enough to
recover the keys and plaintext.

I co-authored a paper were we used this same concept in a software
protection application ([1]) and later we formalized this concept, that
we called secure triggers, in a paper eventually publised at TISSEC
([2]). We were only able to construct triggers for very specific
predicate families, e.g.,
  - p(x)=1 iff x=I for some I in {0,1}^k
  - q(x,y,z,...)=1 iff x=I_1, y=I_2, z=I_3,...; and finally
  - r(x)=1 iff x_{j_1}=b_1,...,x_{j_k}=b_k for some b_1,...,b_k in {0,1}
    and indexes i_1,...,i_k (|x|>=k).
While these predicates do not cover arbitrary large possibilities, they
are implemented by efficient algorithms and require assuming only the
existence of IND-CPA secure symmetric ciphers. In [2] we came up with
more applications other than sofprot;)

[1] Diego Bendersky, Ariel Futoransky, Luciano Notarfrancesco, Carlos
Sarraute and Ariel Waissbein. "Advanced Software Protection Now". Core
Security Technologies Tech report.

[2] Ariel Futoransky, Emiliano Kargieman, Carlos Sarraute, Ariel
Waissbein. Foundations and applications for secure triggers. ACM TISSEC,
Vol 9(1) (February 2006).


Ivan Krsti? wrote:
> This is fairly interesting: AFAIK the first generalization of predicate
> encryption to support disjunctions. I find the result mostly interesting
> mathematically, since I expect we won't be seeing predicate encryption
> in widespread use anytime soon due to complexity and regulatory
> concerns. --IK
> "Predicate Encryption Supporting Disjunctions, Polynomial Equations, and
> Inner Products"
> Jonathan Katz and Amit Sahai and Brent Waters
> Preprint: <http://eprint.iacr.org/2007/404>
> Abstract: Predicate encryption is a new paradigm generalizing, among
> other things, identity-based encryption. In a predicate encryption
> scheme, secret keys correspond to predicates and ciphertexts are
> associated with attributes; the secret key SK_f corresponding to the
> predicate f can be used to decrypt a ciphertext associated with
> attribute I if and only if f(I)=1. Constructions of such schemes are
> currently known for relatively few classes of predicates.
> We construct such a scheme for predicates corresponding to the
> evaluation of inner products over N (for some large integer N). This, in
> turn, enables constructions in which predicates correspond to the
> evaluation of disjunctions, polynomials, CNF/DNF formulae, or threshold
> predicates (among others). Besides serving as what we feel is a
> significant step forward in the theory of predicate encryption, our
> results lead to a number of applications that are interesting in their
> own right.
> -- 
> Ivan Krsti? <[EMAIL PROTECTED]> | http://radian.org
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