Folks:

I had an idea about how to use a single key to accomplish both encryption and integrity checking on an immutable file. I posted it to the tahoe-dev list [1], and David-Sarah Hopwood followed up with an interesting new crypto cap design [2]. Here is the basic crypto trick, which may be useful in other contexts than Tahoe-LAFS.

Suppose you have some data and you want to control who gets to see it, and you also want anyone who sees it to be able to verify its integrity. So far, these requirements are familiar to cryptographers. The obvious answer is to encrypt the data and then to MAC (Message Authentication Code) the ciphertext. There would be one key for the encryption and one key for the MAC. However, this has the wrong semantics for our purposes -- anyone who is given the ability to check the integrity (by being given the MAC key) is also given the ability to create new texts which would verify. Likewise, whoever creates the initial MAC tag can also create other MAC tags which would cause others files to also verify. Instead, we want a single file that can pass the integrity check, and nobody -- not a reader who is able to verify integrity nor even the writer who initially created the file -- is able to make a different file which would also pass the integrity check.

Therefore, we want the integrity check value to be the secure hash of the file itself. That's what we currently have in Tahoe-LAFS. The immutable file read cap is a concatenation of two values: the decryption key and the secure hash. The latter is solely for integrity-checking. Actually in Tahoe-LAFS, the integrity check value is not just a flat hash of the plaintext, but instead it is the hash of the roots of a pair of Merkle Trees, one for verifying the correctness of the shares and the other for verifying the correctness of the ciphertext (see [3]).

Now, convergent encryption could do both jobs with one value! If you let the symmetric key be the secure hash of the plaintext, then the reader could use the symmetric key to decrypt, then verify that the key was the hash of the plaintext. However, you can't always use convergent encryption. Not only because of the security issues [4], and not only because it requires two passes over the file which prevents "on-line" processing, but also because you might need to generate the symmetric key and/or the integrity check value in a different way. For example, the Tahoe-LAFS integrity-check value isn't just a secure hash of the plaintext. It would be inefficient to generate the full Tahoe-LAFS integrity check value before beginning to encrypt, and we want to be able to give someone the integrity check value (in a verify cap) without thus giving them the decryption key (i.e. the read cap).

So here is my idea to use a single value to accomplish both decryption and integrity checking even when you can't set the symmetric key to be the secure hash of the plaintext. You use the encryption key K1 to encrypt the plaintext to produce the ciphertext, and in the same pass you compute the integrity-check value V. Then you compute the secure hash of the combination of K1 and V, let's call the result R = H(K1, V). Then you encrypt K1 using R and store the encrypted K1_enc with the ciphertext. Now R is the real key -- the read cap. If someone gives you R, the ciphertext, and the encrypted K1_enc, then you first use R to decrypt K1, check that R = H (K1, V), then perform the decryption and integrity-checking of the ciphertext.

Here is a diagram: [5] (also attached).

David-Sarah Hopwood suggested the improvement that the integrity- check value "V" could be computed as an integrity check (i.e. a secure hash) on the K1_enc in addition to the file contents.

Regards,

Zooko

[1] http://allmydata.org/pipermail/tahoe-dev/2009-September/002796.html
[2] http://allmydata.org/pipermail/tahoe-dev/2009-September/002848.html
[3] http://allmydata.org/~zooko/lafs.pdf
[4] http://hacktahoe.org/drew_perttula.html
[5] http://zooko.com/imm-short-readcap-simple-drawing.svg

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