-Caveat Lector-

Even more disturbing is the continuing support that these war criminals
receive once they are exposed and subjected to deportation hearings. The case
of a New York housewife by the name of Mrs. Hermine Braunstiener Ryan will be
used as an example. After the war she had first immigrated to Canada in 1958
she married an American and moved to Queens, New York. In 1963 she was became
a naturalized citizen, and in 1964 she was exposed as a former Nazi
concentration guard. One witness at the trial described how she had whipped
an inmate at Majdanek to death. Mrs. Ryan was a housewife of a tradesman who
had a hard time to make ends meet by her own account. How then was she able
to afford the services of the Barry law firm, one of the most expensive and
experienced law firms specializing in immigration, for almost a decade from
first being exposed in 1964 until the 1974 trial? Who funded the two research
trips Barrry made to Australia? The funding sources are unknown yet today,
but with the other incidents of interference with the prosecution that came
from within the judicial system, all fingers point towards the intelligence
community. The example of Mrs. Ryan illustrates two points that run common
throughout deportation cases. One the defendant is receiving top level help
most likely from the intelligence agencies and two invariably they involve
low level officials or guards. The top echelon of the former Nazi quisling
governments seems totally immune from prosecution even after being exposed
with a few notable exceptions. A case in point is that of Laszio Pasztor, a
convicted Nazi collaborator who was imprisoned for his role in WWII as a
member of the Hungarian Arrow Cross. Pastor was a diplomat for the Nazi
puppet government in Hungary. His name surfaced in the Bush campaign of 1988
as a worker for Paul Weyrich's Free Congress Foundation.42 No attempt has
been made to deport him. Earlier Pasztor was a leader of 1968 Nixon-Agnew
ethnic unit in the election campaign. Since then he was the organizer for the
Republican Ethnic Heritage Groups. These groups are composed of largely
fascist-minded emigres.43

But even more iniquitous was the numerous programs set up by various branches
of the intelligence community to grant visas to Nazi war criminals. Paperclip
is the most widely known and researched. However there were several other
programs in addition to Paperclip. Many of these evolved out of the right
wing hysteria over the evils of communism. Every intelligence agency was
trying to recruit former Nazis to deprive the Soviets of their use, including
those of England and France. The Soviets likewise recruited former Nazis.
Granting visas to Nazis or war criminals was explicitly against the laws and
prohibitions passed by congress and very clearly against the wishes of
Truman. In 1949 congress passed the Hundred Person Act which allowed the CIA
to bring in not more than 100 people in a year that were ineligible for visas
otherwise. The Pentagon had a similar measure.

The Hundred Person Act was originally passed as a means to control former war
criminals. The visa was to be only temporary and not permanent, thus if the
fascist once inside the US refused to work according to the agreement he
could be deported easily. In at least one case Wisner wanted to grant a
Beleyorussian Nazi permanent status under the Hundred Person Act until his
file in the National Archives showed him to be a communist.61 How the CIA
defines no derogatory information points to the heart of the matter in the
admission of the former Nazis to the US and the continuing cover up. Recently
a CIA official defined "no derogatory information" as no evidence of pro
Communist activities. Nazis are regarded as anti-Communism hence any evidence
of Nazi activity is not derogatory. Additionally the CIA similarly uses a
narrow definition of employees and agents to stymie investigators and
researchers. Likewise, the FBI uses similar narrow definitions. The FBI
distinguishes between informants and confidential sources, casual sources and
volunteers. The FBI refuses to even release the names of confidential sources
to the assistant attorney general of the Criminal Bureau. Intelligence
agencies also change their filing system often. Once old file clerks retire
all memory of the old file system is erased and even the agency cannot find
it. For instance the CIA could not even find the Gehlen collection until it
was furnished the exact cryptonym.62

Preceding the Hundred Person Act by a year, Project Bloodstone began
operations in 1948. Bloodstone itself can be thought of as the turning point
from tactic to strategic use of former Nazis. Up until Bloodstone the use of
former Nazis and their quislings was more short term or even exploitation of
their knowledge. With Bloodstone the objectives were longer term and more
strategic in nature. Bloodstone was rather short-lived ending in 1950 when it
was superseded by other programs under direct CIA control. It was also the
first crack in the flood gate allowing Nazis quislings into the US. Many of
those admitted into the US under Bloodstone went on to become covert
saboteurs and assassins for US intelligence agencies. Besides the usual camp
guards Bloodstone was the route into the US for the top echelon of Nazi
collaborators and leaders. Its primary sponsors were Frank Wisner and Robert
Lovett. Wisner initially proposed that Bloodstone would allow 250 into the
US, 100 of which would be assigned to the Department of State to be engaged
mostly in Voice of America and 50 to be assigned to each military branch.63

Bloodstone was initially approved 6/10/1948 by the State, Army, Navy, Air
Force Coordinating Committee a month later the joint chiefs approved a second
interlocking program expanding Bloodstone to include covert warfare, sabotage
and assassinations where as originally the plan was to be devoted to filling
in intelligence gaps. In June of 1948 the National Security Council delivered
Truman's approval of NSC10/2 which authorized the types of clandestine
operations that would be engaged. It marked a huge turning point in US-Soviet
relationships. In regards to Nazis the sole purpose of Bloodstone seem to be
to circumvent US immigration laws. In fact a special subcommittee of
Bloodstone was created to provide false identification, cover jobs and secret
police protection to immigrants.64

Perhaps the most damning of all aspect that can be traced back to Bloodstone
was the beginning of the CIA's manipulation of the free press. The National
Committee for a Free Europe (NCFE) was a thinly disguised CIA front
organization. Dulles and Wisner used their combined talents in lining up and
all star board of directors, many of which where Wall Street lawyers. The
NCFE depended upon the media to cloak its true mission in secrecy. Early
members of this corporations were Henry Luce of Time-Life, DeWitt Wallace of
the Reader's Digest, and C.D. Jackson of Fortune. The net effect of this was
the creation of a powerful lobby within the free press to suppress critical
news of the CIA, a lobby that still very much active today.65 Equally
disquieting is the interference in domestic affairs by an agency that is
barred from all domestic activities.

The subject of the free press is broached in more detail in another chapter.
Here we will only establish the connections between the free press and the
CIA's abusive connections with it and the CIA's involvement with other
domestic organizations such as university and the use of private foundations
as fronts. Surprisingly the war criminals in the émigré groups were exposed
to some extent during the late 40s and early 50s. Returning military
personnel were incensed upon finding war criminals working at US military
bases. Other groups such as the Minnesota chapter of the American Chemical
Society were outraged that émigrés were given preference for jobs over their
members.89 In another example of granting the Nazi scientist preference over
US workers stems from the failure of the Air Force recruits to offer a single
job to engineers laid off from North American Aviation instead they sent six
recruiters to Germany where they recruited thirty five ex Nazis.94 Émigrés
with scientific skills not needed by the defense establishment were placed
either in private business or in university positions at the urging of the
CIA. It was largely due to the need to cover up these leaks and exposures
that the CIA became closely associated with the press and launched a major
domestic propaganda blitz.

One of the larger front groups the CIA was using domestically to manipulate
the political climate inside the US was the Crusade for Freedom (CFF). The
CFF main focus was on liberation of the countries in which communism held
sway rather than on containment. The risk of a direct confrontation or
nuclear war was ignored. The CIA made a direct contribution to the
anti-Communist education through the CFF of five million dollars. To put this
figure into perspective this figure exceeded the combined total of all money
spent in the Truman-Dewey presidential election campaign. It fully
establishes the CIA as the largest manipulator of public opinion.69 Several
other domestic groups were used as fronts for the CIA's propaganda campaign
among them are the Committee for a Free Europe and Common Cause (no
relationship to today's group by the same name).

The following quote over Reagan's involvement with the front group Crusade
for Freedom illustrates just how pervasive and extensive these operations

"In 1952, at MCA, Actors' Guild president Ronald Reagan - a screen idol
recruited by MOCKINGBIRD's Crusade for Freedom to raise funds for the
resettlement of Nazis in the U.S., according to Loftus - signed a secret
waiver of the conflict-of-interest rule with the mob-controlled studio, in
effect granting it a labor monopoly on early television programming. In
exchange, MCA made Reagan a part owner. Furthermore, historian C. Vann
Woodward, writing in the New York Times, in 1987, reported that Reagan had
"fed the names of suspect people in his organization to the FBI secretly and
regularly enough to be assigned 'an informer's code number, T-10.' His FBI
file indicates intense collaboration with producers to 'purge' the industry
of subversives."70

Perhaps there is no better example of the propaganda placed in the press than
the 1949 article appearing in Life by Wallace Caroll in manipulating the
public opinion of the Nazi quislings and war criminals. They were cast in the
light of freedom fighters as the following excerpt shows:

"There was no Partisan movement in their area no sabotage, and the peasants
fulfilled the German requisitions of farm products on schedule. The
attribution of atrocities to these troops, as well as the numerous pro-Nazi
and anti-Semitic periodicals published by the Vlasov organization during the
war, were forgeries which the Soviet propagandists shrewdly attributed to
Vlasov's forces. These facts had been known for a long time to Russian
experts of the State Department and to a small number of American officers.
Caroll's conclusion was in part that America needed to embrace the former
Nazi collaborators as a central tactic in a comprehensive strategy of
political warfare against the Soviets."71

The use of the press for propaganda purposes fell under a broad CIA operation
dubbed Mockingbird formed in the late 1940s. The full extent of Mockingbird
and Operation Chaos came to the surface in the Church Committee hearings and
the Rockefeller commission in the aftermath of Watergate in the mid 1970s. The
 Rockefeller Commission was nothing more than a whitewash. The reader should
note the previous connection of Rockefeller and the wartime OSS, but
Rockefeller's intelligence connection didn't end with the war. In 1954 he
became the super coordinator for clandestine intelligence operations. A
member to note of the Rockefeller commission for his later advocacy of
censorship was Reagan.72 As an example of lack of concern or seriousness of
the Rockefeller Commission is the behavior of Reagan. He left the first
meeting early, and managed to miss three of the next four meetings in fact he
was so busy political stumping that he only visited the headquarters once in
the first month.103 Operation Chaos was a CIA operation of disrupting the
antiwar movement and leftist groups of the 60s and early 70s. It will be
dealt with in another chapter including the FBI's sister program COINTELPRO.

Findings from the Church committee revealed that in the past the CIA had up
to 400 agents posing as journalists or journalists that were cooperative with
the CIA. The CIA regarded CBS, The New York Times and the Washington Post as
their most useful assets within the media.74 Other connections between the
media and the CIA included Henry Luce of Time-Life, DeWitt Wallace of the
Reader's Digest, Barry Birgham of the Louisville Courier-Herald and James
Copely of Copley News Services. All major news outlets were involved
including ABC, NBC, UPI, AP, Reuter, Hearst papers, Scripps Howard, Newsweek
magazine, Miami Herald, the Saturday Evening Post and the Christian Science
Monitor. Another connection worthy of noting here is William Casey, Reagan's
Director of the CIA made a fortune in investing in Capital Cities
Broadcasting Corporation. 83

The extent of the CIA infiltration of the media can best be illustrated by
the example of CBS. Where William Paley was openly supportive of information
exchanges. Sid Mickelson was reported to have received cash payments for
information. Another connection between the intelligence community and CBS is
Joseph Ream, a former Wall Street lawyer and once deputy director of D/DIRNSA
office in the National Security Agency (NSA) who became an executive vice
president at CBS upon leaving the NSA.73

The full extent of the perversion of the free press is explored in more
detail in a separate chapter. A brief look at the evolution of the corruption
of the media and its accompanying sister secrecy here is needed. The
publishing of the Pike Report by the Village Voice on February 16, 1976
revealed for the first time, the shocking extent of CIA excesses. The report
revealed cost over runs of 400 percent for foreign operations and 500 percent
for domestic operations, the huge propaganda network ran by the agency, and
the existence of a military capacity greater than many foreign governments.
CIA Director Bush moved to stem the leaks. Bush was successful in lobbying
congress to limit it's oversight of the agency and in extending secrecy
agreements beyond just the employees of the CIA. Bush also established the
Publications Review Board, the first peacetime government censor. The Review
Board gave he CIA the power to censor all speeches and writings of former
agents, the Review Board must first approve all books by former agents. 75

A dark cloud of secrecy began blanketing the country with the election of
Reagan in 1980. In 1981the Interagency information Security Committee was
established under the direction of Richard Willard. Reagan never the champion
of civil rights was concerned with stemming leaks. The leaks were not leaks
of secrets but rather leaks of damaging or embarrassing in fighting or
information. The trigger for establishing Willard's group was the disclosures
of David Stockman on budget matters and the failure of dummy side economics.
One recommendation coming from Willard group was to prosecute leakers or
whistle blowers for theft of information claiming that the government held
the copyright to all documents, which is a direct violation of US copyright
laws prohibiting the government ownership of any documents. The group also
called for a system wide secrecy agreement.76

With Reagan reelection Bush was appointed head of the Task Force for
Combating Terrorism. With this mandate Bush set a course for further limiting
congressional oversight of the CIA. The big lie here was that terrorism was
declining in 1985, in fact only 7 incidents of terrorism occurred in 1985
down from a high of 29 in 1980. Perhaps the most grievous aspect of the task
forces recommendations was the redefining terrorism as "political theater
designed to undermine or alter government authority or behavior." In effect
it was now a crime to think differently than the government. The Boston Tea
Part would be described as terrorism under this definition, so would have the
civil rights marches, the feminist movement and the environmental movement.77

During the Reagan and Bush presidencies censorship rose to a truly Orwellian
proportion. Items that had previously been published could be reclassified as
secret and censored. Perhaps the following item will give the reader an idea
of the Orwellian censorship of the CIA. A Ernest Fitzgerald was a engineer
assigned to a position in position of procurement and cost control in the air
force in 1966. Within a year of accepting the position he issued a scathing
speech on the archaic Pentagon procurement system. He pointed out how
contractors could bilk the government out of millions of dollars because they
had no facts about the real cost of weapons systems. Many listeners asked him
for a copy of his speech, however before he could provide them with a
transcript it first had to be approved by the Office of Security Review. They
ordered Fitzgerald to neither distribute or print the speech. After obtaining
a copy of the reviewers comments from a security guard, Fitzgerald found that
one of the things the censors objected to were his quotes from Francis Bacon,
the father of the scientific method.78 Mind you this was before the security
was tighten under Bush and Reagan. Can you now imagine what would be censored
after the security was tighten?

One final example of how the CIA manipulates public opinion for political
purposes and as well as how they are utterly a failure at intelligence is
quoted below.

"When Mikhail Gorbachev assumed power in 1985, CIA senior analysts almost
immediately stated that his efforts for peace were genuine. In fact, the CIA
believed that his projected reforms, perestroika, would require the Soviet
Union to trim back considerably its military expenditures, since considerable
emphasis would have to be placed in consumer industries. Yet a year later in
an April 1986 memo, the CIA sought to mislead the American public by
characterizing the Soviet Union as a rapidly growing military machine.

This CIA report was well received by the Reagan, giving him more leverage to
continue to fund the American war machine, including his pet $40 billion
project of star wars. The CIA exaggerated forecast of the number of strategic
nuclear warheads which the Soviet Union was planning on deploying in the
following ten years. It was predicted that the Soviets would build a
staggering 20,000 warheads by 1995. This was virtually impossible, since it
would have required the increase in Soviet expenditures on strategic forces
of 11 percent to 13 percent every year for a decade. Ultimately the Soviet
Union never deployed even 12,000 warheads, and the START treaty signed in
1991 actually required the Soviets to reduce the number of nuclear warheads
to 3,500.

By 1988, the CIA reported that perestroika was failing and that the Soviet
Union was reverting to the old order. Then in the summer of 1991, CIA
analysts stated that a coup was unlikely because the conservative element had
waited too long, losing the support of the KGB."85

In other words the CIA failed to predict the downfall of the Soviet Union.
But this is not the only recent failure of the ability of the CIA to correct
analyze the situation and make correct predictions. They failed to predict
either India's or Pakistan's ability to build an atomic bomb.

This elaborate disinformation and security network was needed to protect the
ever increasing numbers of war criminals being admitted to the US. Bloodstone
started rather humbly with a yearly cap of just 250 persons, but the CIA and
particularly Wisner had much larger plans. By 1950 CIA representatives asked
congress for a plan to authorize special importation of up to 15,000 CIA
sponsored refugees in addition to those already entering through the Displac
ed Persons Act. The bill that finally passed by congress allowed only 500
over a three-year period. However congress's refusal to allow for the full
15,000 was not the end of the CIA's plans. Instead the CIA expanded its
authority under NSC 86, and NSCIDs 13 and 14 to employ the NSC's
authorization to sponsor indirectly many of the same émigrés it had planned
to import. US based refuge programs from various provinces of the USSR were
eager to sponsor many of the same people Wisner wanted. Many of the war
criminals from Latvia, Lithuanian, Belarus and the Ukraine entered in this

One of the more notorious Bloodstone beneficiaries was Gustav Hilger. Hilger
was a personal secretariat to Jachim von Ribbentrop and as a liaison officer
directly process the reports from the SS Einsatzugruppen. He also had a
significant role in the capturing and extermination of Italian Jews. Another
Bloodstone recruit was Nikolai Poppe, both Poppe and Hilger played
influential roles in formatting US policy towards the USSR.80

A 1978 GAO study established that the CIA had a clear working relationship
with the war criminals among the émigré groups. In a sample of 111 war
criminals the study found that 20% had worked as informants for intelligence
and security agencies.81

After an embarrassing incident with the assassination squads in Germany, the
US intelligence and military leaders decided it would be for the best if the
brightest and most promising were brought into the US. Once admitted to
America they were to become incorporated into the army itself under army
control but with willing cooperation with the CIA on special missions. In
1950 the army lobbied congress to pass what has become known as the Lodge
Act. The Lodge Act initially allowed 2,500 alien nationals residing outside
the US to enlist into the US army with the guarantee of US citizenship after
5 years of service. Later congress raised the limit to 12,500. Once again the
writer wishes to remind the readers that not all persons admitted in this
manner were Nazis and war criminals the vast majority have proven themselves
to be loyal citizens. But like all the other programs the CIA chose to mix in
Nazis including former Gestapo agents. Ironically Jews were mostly excluded
from entering the US in this manner. The Adjutant General Office had branded
them as one of the more politically unreliable groups. The first group of
Lodge recruits were mostly Poles and Ukrainians and arrived in October 1951.
About 25 % of the recruits were channeled into confidential slots such as
biological, chemical or atomic warfare specialists. Others were used as
translators and were posted to the Defense Language School in Monerey,
California. The remainder was sent to Fort Bragg, North Carolina for special
guerrilla training and became the nucleus of the Green Berets. This is the
reason for the Nazi style racism that was prevalent in the early Green
Berets. By 1952 only 211 out of 5272 applicants had passed the army's screen
tests. Special Forces recruiters then lower the language and literacy
requirements to attract more recruits.82

Another lesser-known project whose sole function seems to have been to
provide a ratline into the US for former Nazis and war criminals was National
Interest. Paperclip was limited to German and Austrian scientist who worked
for the US Military. In 1947 the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA)
lifted those constraints creating a new operation, National Interest.
National Interest operated at two levels. The most visible was the employing
of German and Austrian scientist by universities, defense contractors and
private industry. Either the Department of Commerce or the Department of
Defense sponsored these scientists. The second level was cloaked in secrecy
and involved the use of these émigrés in covert activities. National Interest
assumed that all of this latter group would be barred from immigration
because of their past. Aliens admitted to the US under National Interest as
well as those under Paperclip were first sent to Canada and then allowed to
reenter the US as resident aliens. In some case Mexico was substituted for

One of the most brazen examples of the type of persons allowed to immigrate
to the US under National Interest was Otto Ambros. Ambros was director of
I.G. Farben. British intelligence shows that Ambors justified the experiments
of Farben's testing nerve gas on victims in their labs by claiming they would
have died in the camps any way and that the experiments was humane in that
they saved the lives of many German workers in their plants. Ambros was found
guilty of slavery and mass murder at Nuremberg but only sentenced to eight
years in prision. In 1951 John McCloy released Ambros from prison along with
many others. W. R. Grace and Dow Chemical immediately employed Ambros as a
consultant. He was also a consultant with the US Military in conducting the
same type of experiments that he had conducted at Farben, the testing of
nerve gas using seven thousand US soldiers at Edgewood Arsenal as guinea

A note to the reader, this writer does not wish to equate these experiments
to the horrors of the Holocaust. Hopefully those horrors will never revisit
the planet again but given mans inhumanity to his fellow man that is wishful
thinking as these experiments point out that the lesson was never learnt from
the Holocaust. The US military immediately set out a course for using
chemical and biological weapons. Several soldiers were injured in the gassing
experiments, some serious enough to require hospitalization. Ironically we
used Nazi scientist to perform the same type of experiments on our own
soldiers that we had brought war crimes against at Nuremberg. One part of the
Nuremberg code established to prevent similar atrocities was that all test
subjects be fully informed and give voluntary consent. The secretary of the
army issued a directive to that effect in 1957, however in 1975
investigations showed that despite the guidelines the test were connected
without informed consent. 90 This applies to all of the experiments that came
out of Paperclip and its associated operations and projects. Eventually some
of these experiments extended to using civilians as unknowing test subjects.

Another example of the CIA manipulating domestic policy stems from the false
1948 telegram from General Lucius Clay that war with the Soviets maybe
imminent. Evidence appears that the message originated with Lt. General
Stephen Chamberlin, at the time Director of Intelligence. Chamberlin was
trying to rescue Operation Paperclip due to the considerable burden of the
army maintaining control.

The Army wanted to shut Paperclip down because of the cost. Chamberlin
visited Germany and cautioned Clay about the sorry state of readiness of US
forces and the need for public support for the military&$39;s appropriations
bills before congress. Chamberlin asked Clay to sound an alarm. On March 5
Clay sent his war warning message to Washington which soon set off somewhat
of a panic. This false scare revitalized Paperclip and National Interest. The
final outcome of the false telegram was its effect on both Paperclip and
National Interest to shift their focus to getting German scientist out of
Europe to deprive the Soviets of their use even if it meant smuggling war
criminals to such countries as Argentina.88

There is one further operation to expose before looking at Paperclip, it was
simply known as '63.' It operated throughout the 1950s nonstop. Up until 1950
a total of 665 individuals were brought into the US under Paperclip another
687 were brought in from 1950 to 1959. Project 63 sole purpose was to deny
the Soviets the use of German scientists. The immigrants under Project 63
were given $5000 and temporary visa to enter the US for six months to seek
work while staying at the Alamac Hotel in New York City. Most found
employment with universities or defense contractors. The net effect was the
US tax payer paid to help former Nazis obtain jobs with such corporations as
Lockheed and Martin Marietta among others.91

Recruitment under Project 63 was active despite denials to the German
government complaints that US recruitment of German scientist was hurting
their recovery. Project 63 found a large pool of untapped expertise in
Austria, despite their past record as war criminals or membership in the
communist party. In fact Project 63 recruiters were so unconcerned about the
Nazi background of the recruits that they even attempted to contract
convicted war criminals still serving time in prison. An example of such
disregard for past Nazi activities was the case of recruiting Eduard
Houdremont, who was serving time for war crimes. Houdremount was a top
official of Krupp and was convicted for his involvement in the use of slave
labor. But he was on the "K" list or those whose talents should be denied
from the Soviets. The following quote is from the brief discussion of JIOA
over whether to offer Houremont a contract.

" The point to consider is whether the newspaper publicity would be adverse
if he were brought over," JIOA member Max Brokaw said.

"If the man is on the K likst and he should be brought over, we should do it
regardless of the publicity," replied JIOA Deputy Diretor James Skinner.92

Such was the widespread disregard for background checks. In another time
Brokaw admitted that the Austrians' backgrounds had not been checked,
included among that group of recruits was one individual under investigation
by the FBI. He stated that the plan was to bring them into the US and if
later if some were found inadmissible they may have to be bought off. Karl
Blome was one such case that had to be bought off. Blome's past medical
experiment are listed a little later, he was a major general in the SA.93

After looking at the many aspects of Paperclip and other intelligence
operations both within the confines of Paperclip and outside of it. And how
they involved from the restricted military usefulness of the recruits to a
much broader program in attempting to deny the Soviets the services of these
Nazi scientists in the event of another war; its time to look at the origins
of Paperclip. The first record of any actions to such an operation came on
December 1, 1944 when Bill Donovan, head of OSS asked President Roosevelt if
recruits could be given special privileges including entry to the US after
the war. Roosevelt's blunt reply follows.

"I do not believe that we should offer any guarantees of protection in
post-hostilities periods to Germans who are working for your organization. I
think that carrying out of any such guarantees would be difficult and
probably we widely misunderstood both in this country and aboard. We may
expect that the number of Germans who are anxious to save their skins and
property will rapidly increase. Among them may be some who should properly be
tried for war crimes or at least arrested for active participation in Nazi
activities. Even with the necessary controls you mention I am not prepared to
authorize the giving of guarantees."96

The birth of Paperclip had its origins in the summer of 1945 at the Hotel
Wittelsacher in Bad Kissingen. It was at this hotel that the German
scientists from Peenemunde were held. Colonel Putt soon convince General Hugh
Knerr that their technical knowledge would benefit the Air Corps. Knerr
sought permission from Washington to bring five of these scientists to the
US. The War Department assured Truman that accused war criminals will be kept
in close confinement and stern control. The deciding factor for approval for
their admission to the US was the continuing war with Japan, With the
inclusion of the following phrase Project Overcast was launched.

"If any specialist who are brought to this country are subsequently found to
be listed as alleged war criminals, they should be returned to Europe for

This restriction would soon be ignored. It should be noted that the Project
Overcast only allowed for temporary visas, after the scientists had completed
his assigned task they were to be returned to Germany. Overcast was
controlled by three military intelligence agencies, which allowed it to be
cloaked in darkness away from the prying eyes of the public. Those agencies
were Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC), the Joint Intelligence Objectives
Agency (JIOA) and the Exploration Branch of G2.97

One of the myths about Paperclip is that the German scientists were kept
under a close watch by the military. In fact nothing could be further from
the truth. Security was lax to say the least. In many cases they were
permitted to travel about freely; their mail was rarely checked nor where
their phones tapped or monitored. As an example of the total lack of control
the military had over the German scientist was in the second test firing of
the GE Hermes II missile. Several German scientists were position at a
distance surrounding the site to observe the test firing and to radio the
command center in case the missile veered off track so the fuel could be cut
to the engine and stop its flight. The missile did veer off course to the
south, the German observers knew it was off course and allowed it to continue
its flight in which it landed about three miles from the main business
district of Juarez, Mexico in a heavily populated area. There was evidence of
sabotage no attempt was made to restrict the German Scientists.100 In fact at
least three of the Germans at White Sands are known to have had illegal mail
drops in which they received money from foreign sources and coded messages
from South America.

The whole lax security around Paperclip contributed to the ease in which the
Soviets penetrated the operation. Although there is evidence that the
operation was corrupted by Soviet moles from the beginning. Donald Maclean
was the first secretary of the British Embassy and a Soviet mole who offered
help in the recruitment of Nazi scientist. Maclean supplied a list of which
scientists that was to unimportant to recruit. Among the names were those of
Otto Hahn and Carl von Weizsacker. Hahn was listed as having negligible
value. Both Hahn and Weizsacker were as well known in scientific circles as
was Churchilll or Rooosevelt were in political circles. In fact Hahn went on
to win the Nobel Prize in chemistry, both men were giants in their field.98

By the spring of 1946, the name of Operation Overcast had been changed to
Paperclip and was closely coordinated with the British programs. Britain was
already exploiting several groups inside Britain and in March 1946 began
dumping German Scientist on other Commonwealth countries including Canada and
Australia. Some of those that were sent to Canada later entered the US in the
1950s under Paperclip. The JIOA governing committee by this time had already
embarked on their own agenda. Samuel Klaus the State Department
representative was being routinely excluded from meetings. The agenda of the
military officers on the governing committed was to expand the recruitment
list to include POWs, militarists, SS officers among others they deemed
useful. Monroe Hagood the branch chief of G2 was instrumental in hatching a
plot to smuggle SS officers into the US under Paperclip. The perception that
Paperclip only recruited scientists is based on a myth and not the actual

The final policy for authorizing the expansion of Paperclip was presented to
Truman by acting Secretary of State Dean Acheson with his recommendation and
the military's recommendation to sign it. It defined the policies and
procedures that were to be followed explicitly. It included the following

"No person found by the Commanding General, USFET to have been a member of
the Nazi Party and more than a nominal participant in its activities, or an
active supporter of Nazism or militarism shall be brought to the US

The reader should note here that those involved with subverting the
government policy of banning Nazis and war criminals from entering the US was
conducted mostly by midlevel bureaucrats and military officers precisely as
laid out in the earlier chapter of why governments fail. Both Roosevelt and
Truman were opposed and unaware of much of the subversion as was most of the
congress. Later many of those involved with the subversion such as Nixon and
Dulles rose to positions of power. As evidenced by the fact that the first
group of scientists to apply for immigration under Paperclip was rejected
entirely by the State Department as active Nazis. Dulles and others then
promptly rewrote their files expunging any damaging information.

Linda Hunt in a 1985 article for the Union of Atomic Scientists found that in
over 130 Paperclip subjects that the files for everyone of them had been
altered omitting their past Nazi connections that would have excluded them.
By 1955 more than 760 German scientists had been admitted into the US under
the Paperclip Operation. Truman was unaware that his direct forbiddance of
the admission of Nazis was being ignored. This has been confirmed by several
sources including State Department documents and officials of the time. Clark
Clifford special counsel to the Truman at the time has confirmed that the
White House was unaware of any illegal smuggling program bring Nazis or war
criminals into the US.84 The examples below will show how outrageous and
extensive Operation Paperclip was under the guidance of Dulles.

Werner von Braun: The military governor considered the subject to be regarded
as a security threat.

Arthur Rudolph: Subject was director of Mittlewerk factory at the
Dora-Nordhausen concentration camp in which over 20,000 workers dies from
beatings, hangings and starvation. He was an active Nazi party member from
1931. His Military file listed him as 100% Nazi, dangerous type, security
threat, suggest internment.

Karl Blome, Hermann Becker-Freysing, Siegfried Ruff: All three subjects were
involved with the Nurenberg medical case. Blome was tried in 57 for
euthanasia and medical experiments on concentration camp prisoners. He was
found innocent but just barely. Becker-Freysing was even convicted in the
medical case at Nurenberg.

Heinrich Rupp: Was convicted in the saving and loans scandals and reported to
be a link in the October Surprise conspiracy.

There are far too many war criminals admitted to the US for a complete list.
Rather this abbreviated list is intended to illustrate three points. One, the
presence of the damning military file on von Braun, a person who rose to a
position of national prominence and is considered the father of the US space
program and rocketry was immune from exposure.

Two, the admission of convicted war criminals illustrates how extensive and
outrageous the alteration of the files in direct defiance of President Truman
by Dulles and others were. JIOA Director Bosquet Wev dismissed the
alterations as by asserting that "the government's concerns over picayune
details such as Nazi records would result in the best interests of the United
States being subjugated to the efforts expended in beating a dead Nazi
horse." 95 Even today the expulsion of war criminals centers upon the minor
Nazi figures and not on major war criminals or the high Nazi officials. And
finally the alteration of the files establishes the connection firmly between
the Nazis and the CIA.

Following in the aftermath of Watergate congress began a series of
investigations of Nazi war criminals living in the US. Congresswomen
Elizabeth Holtzman was one of those leading the investigations. Among some of
the more startling facts she uncovered was the fact that Paperclip did not
end in the late 1940s as the public had been lead to believe, in fact
Paperclip had only been terminated a year or two before the 1974 start of the
Holtzman investigations. Another fact she uncovered was that prior to 1953
the Displaced Person's Act barred Nazis, a changed in the law in that year
even allowed convicted war criminals to immigrate. Holtzman proposed an
amendment that closed that loophole in addition she lobbied hard to establish
the Office of Special Investigations (the Nazi hunters within the Justice

There is no better way to sum up how extensive and successful the CIA was in
allowing Nazis to immigrate to the US than looking at the previously
mentioned pensions that Germany was paying to former Nazis and where they
reside today. Below is a list of countries and the estimated number of former
Nazis receiving pensions from Germany. These estimates comes from arguably
the most knowledgeable of all Nazi hunters, the Wiesenthal Center. The SS
pensions are typically around $560 a month 3 times the reparations paid to
Holocaust victims.

The reader will have to ponder that final-figure for the US, which is almost
twice as large as the next largest figure in the table, that of Canada. Such
a figure can leave no doubt that the CIA actively engaged in a program to
subvert the immigration laws and the explicit declaration of President Truman
that no Nazi was to be allowed to immigrate. The reader should also note that
about half of all those Nazis receiving pensions are residing in either the
US or a country of the old British Empire.
Aloha, He'Ping,
Om, Shalom, Salaam.
Em Hotep, Peace Be,
All My Relations.
Omnia Bona Bonis,
Adieu, Adios, Aloha.
Roads End

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