Travis H. wrote:
Part of the problem is using a packet-switched network; if we had
circuit-based, then thwarting traffic analysis is easy; you just fill
the link with random garbage when not transmitting packets. ....
OK so far ...
There are two problems with this; one, getting
enough random data, and two, distinguishing the padding from the real
data in a computationally efficient manner on the remote side without
giving away anything to someone analyzing your traffic. I guess both
problems could be solved
by using synchronized PRNGs on both ends to generate the chaff.
This is a poor statement of the problem(s), followed by a "solution" that
is neither necessary nor sufficient.
1) Let's assume we are encrypting the messages. If not, the adversary
can read the messages without bothering with traffic analysis, so the
whole discussion of traffic analysis is moot.
2) Let's assume enough randomness is available to permit encryption
of the traffic ... in particular, enough randomness is available
_steady-state_ (without stockpiling) to meet even the _peak_ demand.
This is readily achievable with available technology.
3) As a consequence of (1) and (2), we can perfectly well use _nonrandom_
chaff. If the encryption (item 1) is working, the adversary cannot tell
constants from anything else. If we use chaff so that the steady-state
traffic is indistinguishable from the peak traffic, then (item 2) we
have enough randomness available; TA-thwarting doesn't require anything
4) Let's consider -- temporarily -- the scenario where the encryption is
being done using IPsec. This will serve to establish terminology and
expose some problems heretofore not mentioned.
4a) IPsec tunnel mode has "inner headers" that are more than sufficient
to distinguish chaff from other traffic. (Addressing the chaff to UDP
port 9 will do nicely.)
4b) What is not so good is that IPsec is notorious for "leaking" information
about packet-length. Trying to make chaff with a distribution of packet
sizes indistinguishable from your regular traffic is rarely feasible, so
we must consider other scenarios, somewhat like IPsec but with improved
5) Recall that IPsec tunnel mode can be approximately described as IPIP
encapsulation carried by IPsec transport mode. If we abstract away the
details, we are left with a packet (called an "envelope") that looks like
| outer header | inner header | payload | 
where the inner header and payload (together called the "contents" of
the envelope) are encrypted. (The "+" signs are meant to be opaque
to prying eyes.) The same picture can be used to describe not just
IPsec tunnel mode (i.e. IPIP over IPsec transport) but also GRE over
IPsec transport, and even PPPoE over IPsec transport.
Note: All the following statements apply *after* any necessary
fragmentation has taken place.
The problem is that the size of the envelope (as described by the length
field in the outer header) is conventionally chosen to be /just/ big
enough to hold the contents. This problem is quite fixable ... we just
need constant-sized envelopes! The resulting picture is:
| outer header | inner header | payload | padding | 
where padding is conceptually different from chaff: chaff means packets
inserted where there would have been no packet, while padding adjusts the
length of a packet that would have been sent anyway.
The padding is not considered part of the contents. The decoding is
unambiguous, because the size of the contents is specified by the length
field in the inner header, which is unaffected by the padding.
This is a really, really tiny hack on top of existing protocols.
If your plaintext consists primarily of small packets, you should set the MTU
of the transporter to be small. This will cause fragmentation of the
large packets, which is the price you have to pay. Conversely, if your
plaintext consists primarily of large packets, you should make the MTU large.
This means that a lot of bandwidth will be wasted on padding if/when there
are small packets (e.g. keystrokes, TCP acks, and voice cells) but that's
the price you have to pay to thwart traffic analysis. (Sometimes you can
have two virtual circuits, one for big packets and one for small packets.
This degrades the max performance in both cases, but raises the minimum
performance in both cases.)
Remark: FWIW, the MTU (max transmission unit) should just be called
the TU in this case, because all transmissions have the same size now!