[partial quote]
Sorry, Einstein: It looks like the world is spooky — even when your most famous 
theory is tossed out.This finding comes from a close look at quantum 
entanglement, in which two particles that are "entangled" affect each other 
even when separated by a large distance. Einstein found that his theory of 
special relativity meant that this weird behavior was impossible, calling it 
"spooky."Now, researchers have found that even if they were to scrap this 
theory, allowing entangled particles to communicate with each other faster than 
the speed of light or even instantaneously, that couldn't explain the odd 
behavior. The findings rule out certain "realist" interpretations of spooky 
quantum behavior. [Infographic: How Quantum Entanglement Works]"What that tells 
us is that we have to look a little bit deeper," said study co-author Martin 
Ringbauer, a doctoral candidate in physics at the University of Queensland in 
Australia. "This kind of action-at-a-distance is not enough to explain quantum 
correlations" seen between entangled particles, Ringbauer said.
Action at a distance
Most of the time, the world seems — if not precisely orderly — then at least 
governed by fixed rules. At the macroscale, cause-and-effect rules the behavior 
of the universe, time always marches forward and objects in the universe have 
objective, measurable properties.  But zoom in enough, and those common-sense 
notions seem to evaporate. At the subatomic scale, particles can become 
entangled, meaning their fates are bizarrely linked. For instance, if two 
photons are sent from a laser through a crystal, after they fly off in separate 
directions, their spin will be linked the moment one of the particles is 
measured. Several studies have now confirmed that, no matter how far apart 
entangled particles are, how fast one particle is measured, or how many times 
particles are measured, their states become inextricably linked once they are 
measured.For nearly a century, physicists have tried to understand what this 
means about the universe. The dominant interpretation was that entangled 
particles have no fixed position or orientation until they are measured. 
Instead, both particles travel as the sum of the probability of all their 
potential positions, and both only "choose" one state at the moment of 
measurement. This behavior seems to defy notions of Einstein's theory ofspecial 
relativity, which argues that no information can be transmitted faster than the 
speed of light. It was so frustrating to Einstein that he famously called it 
"spooky action at a distance." To get around this notion, in 1935, Einstein and 
colleagues Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen laid out a paradox that could test 
the alternate hypothesis that some hidden variable affected the fate of both 
objects as they traveled. If the hidden variable model were true, that would 
mean "there's some description of reality which is objective," Ringbauer told 
Live Science. [Spooky! The Top 10 Unexplained Phenomena]Then in 1964, Irish 
physicist John Stewart Bell came up with a mathematical expression, now known 
as Bell's Inequality, that could experimentally prove Einstein wrong by proving 
the act of measuring a particle affects its state.In hundreds of tests since, 
Einstein's basic explanation for entanglement has failed: Hidden variables 
can't seem to explain the correlations between entangled particles.But there 
was still some wiggle room: Bell's Inequality didn't address the situation in 
which two entangled photons travel faster than light.[end of partial quote]

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