The Earth-grazing meteoroid of 13 October 1990 entered the atmosphere
above Czechoslovakia and Poland and, after 9.8 seconds, returned to
space. Named EN131090, the 44-kilogram (97 lb) meteoroid was observed
travelling 409 kilometres (254 mi) at a speed of 42 km/s (26 mi/s) by
cameras of the European Fireball Network. Its apparent magnitude peaked
at −6.3, several times brighter than Venus's peak magnitude.
Observations of such events are quite rare; this was the second recorded
by scientific astronomical instruments (after the 1972 Great Daylight
Fireball) and the first recorded from two distant positions, which
enabled the calculation of several of its orbital characteristics. The
encounter with Earth significantly changed its orbit and, to a smaller
extent, some of its physical properties, including its mass and the
structure of its upper layer. If the meteoroid had reached the lower
atmosphere, it would have overheated and exploded high above the ground,
leaving at most a few small meteorites that posed no danger to the
Earth's surface.

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Today's selected anniversaries:


Queen Anne's War: The French surrender ending the Siege of Port
Royal gave the British permanent possession of Nova Scotia.


War of 1812: British troops and Mohawk warriors repelled an
American invasion from across the Niagara River at the Battle of
Queenston Heights near Queenston, Ontario.


Prince Arthur, a son of Queen Victoria, became the first
Governor General of Canada of royal descent, as well as the first Prince
of Great Britain and Ireland to hold that position.


The Soviet republics of Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and
Georgia signed the Treaty of Kars with the Grand National Assembly of
Turkey to establish the contemporary borders between Turkey and the
South Caucasus states.


The first book featuring the English children's literature
character Paddington Bear (statue pictured), created by Michael Bond and
primarily illustrated by Peggy Fortnum, was published.

Wiktionary's word of the day:

1. Excessively nourished.
2. (often  euphemistic) Overweight.

Wikiquote quote of the day:

     It may be the cock that crows, but it is the hen that lays the
  --Margaret Thatcher

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