Given that the error is "Illegal instruction", and reproducibly happens on x86-bm-01 and not the other machines we've tried, could it be something assuming CPU features more recent than the amd64 baseline?

If so, it's not obvious where: scilab does contain some C/C++ code (as well as Java), but there aren't any asm() or __builtin_ia32* calls in it, or any -march options in the build log. Maybe it's in a dependency, not scilab itself?

There is an open "illegal instruction crash in Xcos" bug upstream, which may or may not be related:

Alexis Murzeau wrote:
will such bug-fix upstream release be accepted in
buster, now that we are in full freeze ?

Generally not: Debian prefers not to fix minor bugs during freeze because this might accidentally create major ones.

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