> But the target audience for phishing are uninformed people. People which have 
> no idea what a EV cert is. People who don't even blink if the English on the 
> phishing page is worse than a 5-year old could produce.
> You cannot base the decision if a EV indication in the browser is useful on 
> those people.
The discussions that many users don't even recognize the difference between 
EV/OV/DV certificates is unfortunately true, BUT forced by the browsers:

When EV certificates were introduced, each browser displayed a green address 
bar including the company name and the country abbreviation of the certificate 
Gradually the green colouring of the address bar was removed and only the 
company name and country abbreviation were displayed in green.
To top it all off, the lock symbol of ALL certificates was displayed in green 
to make the confusion of the users perfect.
Google Chrome also removed the green color of the company name.

Each browser then had a different display of all certificate types at short 

In the early days of EV certificates, it was easy for me to tell my mother and 
" uninformed" friends that they should pay attention to the green address bar 
and the company name displayed there, and if possible not make any purchases or 
data inputs at all on other sites.

It was so simple: green address bar + some intelligence > 99% security

- no normal user can display the contents of certificates
- no normal user can recognize which certificate types are actually involved

Of course, you can never be 100% sure that when calling a website with an EV 
- no one has stolen the certificate
- another company with a similar name operates a phishing site
However, the effort to do this is so much higher that it is hardly worth it, 
see below.

Also it is pointed out here again and again that EV certificates are so 
insecure, because e.g. a certificate for https://stripe.ian.sh was issued for 
Stripe, Inc located in Kentucky and was displayed by the browsers exactly like 
the EV certificate from Stripe, Inc.
This is not a reason for abolishing EV certificates, but rather a reason to 
talk about the UI of the known browsers.
Each EV certificate lists both the location of the company and the registry. 
Therefore, you can also display "Fima/State/Country" in the address bar of the 

In addition, it is still much more complicated to operate a fake website with 
an EV certificate (I come from Germany, therefore related to Germany):
- Foundation of a corporation (GmbH):
o min 15.000,- EUR
o Appearance of at least one person at a notary and verification of all data
o Verification of all data by commercial register
- Application for EV certificate

I would like to link to a study on the use of EV certificates for phishing:

If the formation of a corporation in other countries is faster/simpler/cheaper, 
it still does not contribute to abuse.

My opinion:
EV certificates are not 100% secure, BUT they increase security enormously.

Why do browsers want to make the Internet less secure? Instead of abolishing 
the EV indicators, they should rather be fully activated again, including the 
green address bar.


Translated with www.DeepL.com/Translator
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