If this change will be accepted I think need to modify anaconda
partition dialog for BTRFS scheme.
It has difficult and not obvious behavior when user want to change
automatically created partition scheme and resize BTRFS volumes.
See this bugreport https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=1851212

пт, 26 июн. 2020 г. в 17:46, Ben Cotton <bcot...@redhat.com>:
> https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Changes/BtrfsByDefault
> == Summary ==
> For laptop and workstation installs of Fedora, we want to provide file
> system features to users in a transparent fashion. We want to add new
> features, while reducing the amount of expertise needed to deal with
> situations like [https://pagure.io/fedora-workstation/issue/152
> running out of disk space.] Btrfs is well adapted to this role by
> design philosophy, let's make it the default.
> == Owners ==
> * Names: [[User:Chrismurphy|Chris Murphy]], [[User:Ngompa|Neal
> Gompa]], [[User:Josef|Josef Bacik]], [[User:Salimma|Michel Alexandre
> Salim]], [[User:Dcavalca|Davide Cavalca]], [[User:eeickmeyer|Erich
> Eickmeyer]], [[User:ignatenkobrain|Igor Raits]],
> [[User:Raveit65|Wolfgang Ulbrich]], [[User:Zsun|Zamir SUN]],
> [[User:rdieter|Rex Dieter]], [[User:grinnz|Dan Book]],
> [[User:nonamedotc|Mukundan Ragavan]]
> * Emails: chrismur...@fedoraproject.org, ngomp...@gmail.com,
> jo...@toxicpanda.com, mic...@michel-slm.name, dcava...@fb.com,
> er...@ericheickmeyer.com, ignatenkobr...@fedoraproject.org,
> fed...@raveit.de, z...@fedoraproject.org, rdie...@gmail.com,
> gri...@gmail.com, nonamed...@gmail.com
> * Products: All desktop editions, spins, and labs
> * Responsible WGs: Workstation Working Group, KDE Special Interest Group
> == Detailed Description ==
> Fedora desktop edition/spin variants will switch to using Btrfs as the
> filesystem by default for new installs. Labs derived from these
> variants inherit this change, and other editions may opt into this
> change.
> The change is based on the installer's custom partitioning Btrfs
> preset. It's been well tested for 7 years.
> '''''Current partitioning'''''<br />
> <span style="color: tomato">vg/root</span> LV mounted at <span
> style="color: tomato">/</span> and a <span style="color:
> tomato">vg/home</span> LV mounted at <span style="color:
> tomato">/home</span>. These are separate file system volumes, with
> separate free/used space.
> '''''Proposed partitioning'''''<br />
> <span style="color: tomato">root</span> subvolume mounted at <span
> style="color: tomato">/</span> and <span style="color:
> tomato">home</span> subvolume mounted at <span style="color:
> tomato">/home</span>. Subvolumes don't have size, they act mostly like
> directories, space is shared.
> '''''Unchanged'''''<br />
> <span style="color: tomato">/boot</span> will be a small ext4 volume.
> A separate boot is needed to boot dm-crypt sysroot installations; it's
> less complicated to keep the layout the same, regardless of whether
> sysroot is encrypted. There will be no automatic snapshots/rollbacks.
> If you select to encrypt your data, LUKS (dm-crypt) will be still used
> as it is today (with the small difference that Btrfs is used instead
> of LVM+Ext4). There is upstream work on getting native encryption for
> Btrfs that will be considered once ready and is subject of a different
> change proposal in a future Fedora release.
> === Optimizations (Optional) ===
> The detailed description above is the proposal. It's intended to be a
> minimalist and transparent switch. It's also the same as was
> [[Features/F16BtrfsDefaultFs|proposed]] (and
> [https://lwn.net/Articles/446925/ accepted]) for Fedora 16. The
> following optimizations improve on the proposal, but are not critical.
> They are also transparent to most users. The general idea is agree to
> the base proposal first, and then consider these as enhancements.
> ==== Boot on Btrfs ====
> * Instead of a 1G ext4 boot, create a 1G Btrfs boot.
> * Advantage: Makes it possible to include in a snapshot and rollback
> regime. GRUB has stable support for Btrfs for 10+ years.
> * Scope: Contingent on bootloader and installer team review and
> approval. blivet should use <code>mkfs.btrfs --mixed</code>.
> ==== Compression ====
> * Enable transparent compression using zstd on select directories:
> <span style="color: tomato">/usr</span>    <span style="color:
> tomato">/var/lib/flatpak</span>    <span style="color:
> tomato">~/.local/share/flatpak</span>
> * Advantage: Saves space and significantly increase the lifespan of
> flash-based media by reducing write amplification. It may improve
> performance in some instances.
> * Scope: Contingent on installer team review and approval to enhance
> anaconda to perform the installation using <code>mount -o
> compress=zstd</code>, then set the proper XATTR for each directory.
> The XATTR can't be set until after the directories are created via:
> rsync, rpm, or unsquashfs based installation.
> ==== Additional subvolumes ====
> * <span style="color: tomato">/var/log/</span>    <span style="color:
> tomato">/var/lib/libvirt/images</span>  and  <span style="color:
> tomato">~/.local/share/gnome-boxes/images/</span> will use separate
> subvolumes.
> * Advantage: Makes it easier to excluded them from snapshots,
> rollbacks, and send/receive. (Btrfs snapshotting is not recursive, it
> stops at a nested subvolume.)
> * Scope: Anaconda knows how to do this already, just change the
> kickstart to add additional subvolumes (minus the subvolume in <span
> style="color: tomato">~/</span>. GNOME Boxes will need enhancement to
> detect that the user home is on Btrfs and create <span style="color:
> tomato">~/.local/share/gnome-boxes/images/</span> as a subvolume.
> == Feedback ==
> ==== Red Hat doesn't support Btrfs? Can Fedora do this? ====
> Red Hat supports Fedora well, in many ways. But Fedora already works
> closely with, and depends on, upstreams. And this will be one of them.
> That's an important consideration for this proposal. The community has
> a stake in ensuring it is supported. Red Hat will never support Btrfs
> if Fedora rejects it. Fedora necessarily needs to be first, and make
> the persuasive case that it solves more problems than alternatives.
> Feature owners believe it does, hands down.
> The Btrfs community has users that have been using it for most of the
> past decade at scale. It's been the default on openSUSE (and SUSE
> Linux Enterprise) since 2014, and Facebook has been using it for all
> their OS and data volumes, in their data centers, for almost as long.
> Btrfs is a mature, well-understood, and battle-tested file system,
> used on both desktop/container and server/cloud use-cases. We do have
> developers of the Btrfs filesystem maintaining and supporting the code
> in Fedora, one is a Change owner, so issues that are pinned to Btrfs
> can be addressed quickly.
> ==== What about device-mapper alternatives? ====
> dm-thin (thin provisioning):
> [[https://pagure.io/fedora-workstation/issue/152 Issue #152] still
> happens, because the installer won't over provision by default. It
> still requires manual intervention by the user to identify and resolve
> the problem. Upon growing a file system on dm-thin, the pool is over
> committed, and file system sizes become a fantasy: they don't add up
> to the total physical storage available. The truth of used and free
> space is only known by the thin pool, and CLI and GUI programs are
> unprepared for this. Integration points like rpm free space checks or
> GNOME disk-space warnings would have to be adapted as well.
> dm-vdo: is not yet merged, and isn't as straightforward to selectively
> enable per directory and per file, as is the case on Btrfs using
> <code>chattr +c</code> on <span style="color:
> tomato">/var/lib/flatpaks/</span>.
> Btrfs solves the problems that need solving, with few side effects or
> pitfalls for users. It has more features we can take advantage of
> immediately and transparently: compression, integrity, and IO
> isolation. Many Btrfs features and optimizations can be opted into
> selectively per directory or file, such as compression and nodatacow,
> rather than as a layer that's either on or off.
> ==== What about UI/UX and integration in the desktop? ====
> If Btrfs isn't the default file system, there's no commitment, nor
> reason to work on any UI/UX integration. There are ideas to make
> certain features discoverable: selective compression;  systemd-homed
> may take advantage of either Btrfs online resize, or near-term planned
> native encryption, which could make it possible to live convert
> non-encrypted homes to encrypted; and system snapshot and rollbacks.
> Anaconda already has sophisticated Btrfs integration.
> ==== What Btrfs features are recommended and supported? ====
> The primary goal of this feature is to be largely transparent to the
> user. It does not require or expect users to learn new commands, or to
> engage in peculiar maintenance rituals.
> The full set of Btrfs features that is considered stable and enabled
> by default upstream will be enabled in Fedora. Fedora is a community
> project. What is supported within Fedora depends on what the community
> decides to put forward in terms of resources.
> The upstream [https://btrfs.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Status Btrfs
> feature status page].
> ==== Are subvolumes really mostly like directories? ====
> Subvolumes behave like directories in terms of navigation in both the
> GUI and CLI, e.g. <code>cp</code>, <code>mv</code>, <code>du</code>,
> owner/permissions, and SELinux labels. They also share space, just
> like a directory.
> But it is an incomplete answer.
> A subvolume is an independent file tree, with its own POSIX namespace,
> and has its own pool of inodes. This means inode numbers repeat
> themselves on a Btrfs volume. Inodes are only unique within a given
> subvolume. A subvolume has its own st_dev, so if you use <code>stat
> FILE</code> it reports a device value referring to the subvolume the
> file is in. And it also means hard links can't be created between
> subvolumes. From this perspective, subvolumes start looking more like
> a separate file system. But subvolumes share most of the other trees,
> so they're not truly independent file systems. They're also not block
> devices.
> == Benefit to Fedora ==
> Problems Btrfs helps solve:
> * Users running out of free space on either <span style="color:
> tomato">/</span> or <span style="color: tomato">/home</span>
> [https://pagure.io/fedora-workstation/issue/152 Workstation issue
> #152]
> ** "one big file system": no hard barriers like partitions or logical volumes
> ** transparent compression: significantly reduces write amplification,
> improves lifespan of storage hardware
> ** reflinks and snapshots are more efficient for use cases like
> containers (Podman supports both)
> * Storage devices can be flaky, resulting in data corruption
> ** Everything is checksummed and verified on every read
> ** Corrupt data results in EIO (input/output error), instead of
> resulting in application confusion, and isn't replicated into backups
> and archives
> * Poor desktop responsiveness when under pressure
> [https://pagure.io/fedora-workstation/issue/154 Workstation issue
> #154]
> ** Currently only Btrfs has proper IO isolation capability via cgroups2
> ** Completes the resource control picture: memory, cpu, IO isolation
> * File system resize
> ** Online shrink and grow are fundamental to the design
> * Complex storage setups are... complicated
> ** Simple and comprehensive command interface. One master command
> ** Simpler to boot, all code is in the kernel, no initramfs complexities
> ** Simple and efficient file system replication, including incremental
> backups, with <code>btrfs send</code> and <code>btrfs receive</code>
> == Scope ==
> * Proposal owners:
> ** Submit PR's for Anaconda to change <code>default_scheme =
> BTRFS</code> to the proper product files.
> ** Multiple test days: build community support network
> ** Aid with documentation
> * Other developers:
> ** Anaconda, review PRs and merge
> ** Bootloader team, review PRs and merge
> ** Recommended optimization <code>chattr +C</code> set on the
> containing directory for virt-manager and GNOME Boxes.
> * Release engineering: [https://pagure.io/releng/issue/9545 #9545]
> * Policies and guidelines: N/A
> * Trademark approval: N/A
> == Upgrade/compatibility impact ==
> Change will not affect upgrades.
> Documentation will be provided for existing Btrfs users to "retrofit"
> their setups to that of a default Btrfs installation (base plus any
> approved options).
> == How To Test ==
> '''''Today'''''<br />
> Do a custom partitioning installation; change the scheme drop-down
> menu to Btrfs; click the blue "automatically create partitions"; and
> install.<br />
> Fedora 31, 32, Rawhide, on x86_64 and ARM.
> '''''Once change lands'''''<br />
> It should be simple enough to test, just do a normal install.
> == User Experience ==
> ==== Pros ====
> * Mostly transparent
> * Space savings from compression
> * Longer lifespan of hardware, also from compression.
> * Utilities for used and free space, CLI and GUI, are expected to
> behave the same. No special commands are required.
> * More detailed information can be revealed by <code>btrfs</code>
> specific commands.
> ==== Enhancement opportunities ====
> [https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=906591 updatedb does not
> index /home when /home is a bind mount] Also can affected rpm-ostree
> installations, including Silverblue.
> [https://gitlab.gnome.org/GNOME/gnome-usage/-/issues/49 GNOME Usage:
> Incorrect numbers when using multiple btrfs subvolumes] This isn't
> Btrfs specific, happens with "one big ext4" volume as well.
> [https://gitlab.gnome.org/GNOME/gnome-boxes/-/issues/88 GNOME Boxes,
> RFE: create qcow2 with 'nocow' option when on btrfs /home] This is
> Btrfs specific, and is a recommended optimization for both GNOME Boxes
> and virt-manager.
> [https://github.com/containers/libpod/issues/6563 containers/libpod:
> automatically use btrfs driver if on btrfs]
> == Dependencies ==
> None.
> == Contingency Plan ==
> * Contingency mechanism: Owner will revert changes back to LVM+ext4
> * Contingency deadline: Beta freeze
> * Blocks release? Yes
> * Blocks product? Workstation and KDE
> == Documentation ==
> Strictly speaking no documentation is required reading for users. But
> there will be some Fedora documentation to help get the ball rolling.
> For those who want to know more:
> [https://btrfs.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Main_Page btrfs wiki main
> page and full feature list.]
> <code>man 5 btrfs</code> contains: mount options, features, swapfile
> support, checksum algorithms, and more<br />
> <code>man btrfs</code> contains an overview of the btrfs subcommands<br />
> <code>man btrfs <nowiki><subcommand></nowiki></code> will show the man
> page for that subcommand
> NOTE: The btrfs command will accept partial subcommands, as long as
> it's not ambiguous. These are equivalent commands:<br />
> <code>btrfs subvolume snapshot</code><br />
> <code>btrfs sub snap</code><br />
> <code>btrfs su sn</code>
> You'll discover your own convention. It might be preferable to write
> out the full command on forums and lists, but then maybe some folks
> don't learn about this useful shortcut?
> For those who want to know a lot more:
> [https://btrfs.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Main_Page#Developer_documentation
> Btrfs developer documentation]<br />
> [https://github.com/btrfs/btrfs-dev-docs/blob/master/trees.txt Btrfs trees]
> == Release Notes ==
> The default file system on the desktop is Btrfs.
> --
> Ben Cotton
> He / Him / His
> Senior Program Manager, Fedora & CentOS Stream
> Red Hat
> TZ=America/Indiana/Indianapolis
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