The article on which we have been asked to comment addresses many of the most significant issues in the field of stress effects on dreaming. The database is large and potentially quite informative. Yet like Dr. Lavie, I am concerned that there may be some confusion between association and causation; for example, it is almost certainly premature to argue from correlational data that infrequent dream recall protects children from developing depressive symptoms but makes them more susceptible to somatic and anxiety symptoms. Also, I would be interested in the authors' response to my view that a necessary distinction between TRAUMATIC events and major life changes/stressors has been obscured in the Introduction. While it is clear that the authors are interested in the effects of TRAUMATIC stressors on dream recall (and so use the Traumatic Events Checklist), they appear at times to equate bereavement, or divorce for that matter, with trauma. This would appear to be at some variance with the DSM-IV's sense of a traumatic stressor. The essence of trauma may be missed by referring to a major life change as a "less severe trauma." Inferences about the effects on dream recall of TRAUMATIC stress, vs. other forms of stress, may become confused. As an aside, Ross et al. would likely agree, but have never shown, that traumatic experiences increase dream recall. I look forward to further discussion by the authors and the group of discussants of this interesting article. Richard J. Ross, M.D., Ph.D.