Le 06-juin-05, à 01:40, Brent Meeker a écrit :

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What do you take to be the standard definition of "knows"? Is it "Xknows Y"iff "X believes Y is true" and "Y is true"?

That's the one by Theaetetus.

Or do you include Gettier'samendment, "X knows Y" iff "X believes Y is true" and "Y is true" and"There isa causal chain between the fact that makes Y true and X's belief thatY"?

It could depend of the axiom chosen to describe belief. For knowability I take the S4 axioms and rules: 1) axioms: <all classical tautologies> BX -> X BX -> BBX B(X->Y) -> (BX -> BY) 2) Rule: X X -> Y X ----------- ----- (Modus ponens, necessitation) Y BX

`But in the interview of the Lobian machine I recover the S4 axioms +`

`Grz, from`

`defining "knowing X" by "proving X formally and X true" (I apply the`

`Theaetetus on`

formal provability).

`I cannot use Gettier's given that I have no notion of causality to`

`start with. (Recall`

I don't have any physical notion to start with). Bruno http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/~marchal/