The two types of knowledge - as given in the classical
language of Russell's classical version and as given
and the more modern Hameroff/Penrose QM version
I. Russell's classical version
1) Russell's two types of knowledge. Bertrand Russell identified two types of
knowledge, which I have been calling
objective knowledge and subjective knowledge. Or the two types of truth.
a) Knowledge by Acquaintance (Subjective Knowledge-experiential knowledge or
[This appears to me to be what the British empircists called "empirical
Knowledge by acquaintance is one of the ways Russell that we
can have knowledge of things. We have knowledge by acquaintance when we are
directly aware of a thing,
without any inference. We are immediately acquainted with our sense-data.
Knowledge by acquaintance is logically independent of any knowledge of truths.
b) Knowledge by Description (Objective Knowledge -quantitative knowledge ) -
Knowledge by description is the other way,
together with acquaintance, that allows us to have knowledge of things.
Knowledge by description is predicated on something with which we are
and some knowledge of truths, like knowing the description: "such-and-such
sense-data are caused
by the physical object." Thus, knowledge by description allows us to infer
knowledge about the actual world via the things that can be known to us, things
we must have direct acquaintance. Russell's famous example of knowledge by
his discussion of Bismarck, a physical entity with which we may either have
or knowledge by the description: "the first Chancellor of the German Empire."
II.Consciousness, computability and quantum wave collapse.
Penrose and Hameroff's QM version of this computability) --
Conscious events as orchestrated spacetime selections
JCS, 3 (1), 1996, pp.36-53
Stuart Hameroff and Roger Penrose
What is consciousness? Some philosophers have contended that `qualia', or an
medium from which consciousness is derived, exists as a fundamental component
Whitehead, for example, described the universe as being comprised of `occasions
To examine this possibility scientifically, the very nature of physical reality
must be re-examined.
We must come to terms with the physics of spacetime , as is described by
Einstein's general theory of relativity ,
and its relation to the fundamental theory of matter , as described by quantum
theory. This leads us to employ
a new physics of objective reduction: OR which appeals to a form of `quantum
gravity' to provide a useful description
of fundamental processes at the quantum/classical borderline (Penrose, 1994;
1996). Within the OR scheme, we consider
that consciousness occurs if an appropriately organized system is able to
develop and maintain quantum coherent
superposition until a specific `objective' criterion (a threshold related to
quantum gravity) is reached; the
coherent system then self-reduces (objective reduction: OR). We contend that
this type of objective self-collapse
introduces non-computability, an essential feature of consciousness. OR is
taken as an instantaneous event ,
the climax of a self-organizing process in fundamental spacetime , and a
candidate for a conscious Whitehead-like
`occasion' of experience. How could an OR process occur in the brain, be
coupled to neural activities, and account
for other features of consciousness? We nominate an OR process with the
requisite characteristics to be
occurring in cytoskeletal microtubules within the brain's neurons (Penrose and
Hameroff, 1995; Hameroff and Penrose, 1995; 1996).
Roger Clough, rclo...@verizon.net
Leibniz would say, "If there's no God, we'd have to invent him
so that everything could function."
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