The two types of knowledge - as given in the classical 
language of Russell's classical version and as given 
and the more modern Hameroff/Penrose QM  version 


I. Russell's classical version 

http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/problems/terms.html 


1) Russell's two types of knowledge. Bertrand Russell identified two types of 
knowledge, which I have been calling 
objective knowledge and subjective knowledge. Or the two types of truth.

a) Knowledge by Acquaintance (Subjective Knowledge-experiential knowledge or 
Qualia) - 
[This appears to me to be what the British empircists called "empirical 
knowledge."]

 Knowledge by acquaintance is one of the ways Russell that we 
can have knowledge of things. We have knowledge by acquaintance when we are 
directly aware of a thing, 
 without any inference. We are immediately acquainted with our sense-data. 
 Knowledge by acquaintance is logically independent of any knowledge of truths. 

b) Knowledge by Description (Objective Knowledge -quantitative knowledge ) - 
Knowledge by description is the other way, 
together with acquaintance, that allows us to have knowledge of things. 
Knowledge by description is predicated on something with which we are 
acquainted, sense-data, 
and some knowledge of truths, like knowing the description: "such-and-such 
sense-data are caused 
by the physical object." Thus, knowledge by description allows us to infer 
knowledge about the actual world via the things that can be known to us, things 
with which 
we must have direct acquaintance. Russell's famous example of knowledge by 
description is 
 his discussion of Bismarck, a physical entity with which we may either have 
acquaintance, 
or knowledge by the description: "the first Chancellor of the German Empire." 

II.Consciousness, computability and quantum wave collapse.
Penrose and Hameroff's QM version of this computability) -- 


http://www.imprint.co.uk/jcs_3_1.html#conscious%20events 


Conscious events as orchestrated spacetime selections 

JCS, 3 (1), 1996, pp.36-53 

Stuart Hameroff and Roger Penrose 

Abstract: 

What is consciousness? Some philosophers have contended that `qualia', or an 
experiential 
medium from which consciousness is derived, exists as a fundamental component 
of reality. 
Whitehead, for example, described the universe as being comprised of `occasions 
of experience'. 
To examine this possibility scientifically, the very nature of physical reality 
must be re-examined. 
We must come to terms with the physics of spacetime , as is described by 
Einstein's general theory of relativity ,
and its relation to the fundamental theory of matter , as described by quantum 
theory. This leads us to employ 
a new physics of objective reduction: OR which appeals to a form of `quantum 
gravity' to provide a useful description 
of fundamental processes at the quantum/classical borderline (Penrose, 1994; 
1996). Within the OR scheme, we consider 
that consciousness occurs if an appropriately organized system is able to 
develop and maintain quantum coherent 
superposition until a specific `objective' criterion (a threshold related to 
quantum gravity) is reached; the
 coherent system then self-reduces (objective reduction: OR). We contend that 
this type of objective self-collapse
 introduces non-computability, an essential feature of consciousness. OR is 
taken as an instantaneous event ,
 the climax of a self-organizing process in fundamental spacetime , and a 
candidate for a conscious Whitehead-like 
`occasion' of experience. How could an OR process occur in the brain, be 
coupled to neural activities, and account 
for other features of consciousness? We nominate an OR process with the 
requisite characteristics to be
occurring in cytoskeletal microtubules within the brain's neurons (Penrose and 
Hameroff, 1995; Hameroff and Penrose, 1995; 1996). 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



Roger Clough, rclo...@verizon.net 
9/15/2012 
Leibniz would say, "If there's no God, we'd have to invent him 
so that everything could function."

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