On Sunday, March 24, 2013 7:21:52 AM UTC-4, Bruno Marchal wrote:
>
>
> On 22 Mar 2013, at 01:55, Craig Weinberg wrote:
>
> The argument for my view is an inference from roughly four premises:
>>
>> (1) Conscious experience exists.
>>
>> (2) Conscious experience is not logically supervenient on the physical.
>>
>> (3) If there are positive facts that are not logically supervenient on 
>> the physical facts, then physicalism is false.
>>
>> (4) The physical domain is causally closed.
>>
>> (1), (2), and (3) clearly imply the falsity of physicalism. This, taken 
>> in conjunction with
>>
>> (4) and the plausible assumption that physically identical beings will 
>> have identical conscious experiences, implies the view that I have 
>> called natural supervenience: conscious experience arises from the 
>> physical according to some laws of nature, but is not itself physical.
>>
>> The various alternative positions can be catalogued according to whether 
>> they deny (1), (2), (3), or (4). Of course some of these premises can be 
>> denied in more than one way.
>>
>> Denying (1):
>>
>> (i) Eliminativism. On this view, there are no facts about conscious 
>> experience. Nobody is conscious in the phenomenal sense.
>>
>> Denying (2): 
>>
>> Premise (2) can be denied in various ways, depending on how the 
>> entailment in question proceeds—that is, depending on what sort of 
>> physical properties are centrally responsible for entailing 
>> consciousness. I call all of these views “reductive physicalist” views, 
>> because they suppose an analysis of the notion of consciousness that is 
>> compatible with reductive explanation.
>>
>> (ii) Reductive functionalism. This view takes consciousness to be 
>> entailed by physical states in virtue of their functional properties, or 
>> their causal roles. On this view, what it means for a state to be 
>> conscious is for it to play a certain causal role. In a world physically 
>> identical 
>> to ours, all the relevant causal roles would be played, and therefore the 
>> conscious states would all be the same. The zombie world is therefore 
>> logically impossible.
>>
>> (iii) Nonfunctionalist reductive physicalism. On this view, the facts 
>> about consciousness are entailed by some physical facts in virtue of 
>> their satisfaction of some nonfunctional property. Possible candidates 
>> might include biochemical and quantum properties, or properties yet to 
>> be determined.
>>
>> (iv) Holding out for new physics. According to this view, we have no 
>> current idea of how physical facts could explain consciousness, but that 
>> is because our current conception of physical facts is too narrow. When 
>> one argues that a zombie world is logically possible, one is really 
>> arguing that all the fields and particles interacting in the space-time 
>> manifold, postulated by current physics, could exist in the absence of 
>> consciousness. But with a new physics, things might be different. The 
>> entities in a radically different theoretical framework might be 
>> sufficient to entail and explain consciousness.
>>
>> Denying (3):
>>
>> (v) Nonreductive physicalism. This is the view that although there may be 
>> no logical entailment from the physical facts to the facts about 
>> consciousness, and therefore no reductive explanation of consciousness, 
>> consciousness just is physical. The physical facts “metaphysically 
>> necessitate” 
>> the facts about consciousness. Even though the idea of a zombie world is 
>> quite coherent, such a world is metaphysically impossible.
>>
>> Denying (4):
>>
>> (vi) Interactionist dualism. This view accepts that consciousness is 
>> non-physical, but denies that the physical world is causally closed, so 
>> that consciousness can play an autonomous causal role.
>>
>> Then there is my view, which accepts (1), (2), (3), and (4): 
>>
>> (vii) Property dualism. Consciousness supervenes naturally on the 
>> physical, without supervening logically or “metaphysically”.
>>
>> There is also an eighth common view, which is generally underspecified:
>>
>> (viii) Don’t-have-a-clue physicalism: “I don’t have a clue about 
>> consciousness. It seems utterly mysterious to me. But it must be 
>> physical, as physicalism must be true.” Such a view is held widely, but 
>> rarely in print (although see Fodor 1992). 
>>
>> To quickly summarize the situation as I see it: (i) seems to be 
>> manifestly false; (ii) and (iii) rely on false analyses of the notion of 
>> consciousness, and therefore change the subject; (iv) and (vi) place 
>> large and implausible bets on the way that physics will turn out, and also 
>> have 
>> fatal conceptual problems; and (vi) either makes an invalid appeal to 
>> Kripkean a posteriori necessity, or relies on a bizarre metaphysics. I 
>> have a certain amount of sympathy with (viii), but it presumably must 
>> eventually reduce to some more specific view, and none of these seem to 
>> work. This leaves (vii) as the only tenable option.
>>
>> —David Chalmers, The Conscious Mind
>>
>
> My view would require an extra option in between vi and vii - 
>
> (vi.5) Oroborean monism. Physics supervenes reflexively on its own 
> (proposed) capacities to experience. Interaction is not logical but 
> self-evident, with multivalent causation to and from private intention and 
> public extension as ordinary sensory-motor participation. 
>
>
>
> Mechanism is incompatible with physicalism right at the start.
>

In my view, with mechanism, there isn't a mind-body problem so much as a 
presentation problem. Where all form is constructed from functions, no form 
is required, and no form should exist.

Craig


> Bruno
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> Craig
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