Leibniz on interactions between body and soul (mind)

The brief form of Leibniz's view is that because of the pre-pestablished 
There is actually no interaction between soul (mind) and body because it is
not needed. They only appear to interact. It is "as if" they interact. This is 
essentially the
position of the double aspect theory of consciousness, where the links are
not causal but simply bridges.


 See below fior more details of Leibniz's theory: 


"Every present state of a simple substance is a natural consequence of its 
preceding state, in such a way that its present is always the cause of its 
future" ("Monadologie," thesis xxii). "The soul follows its own laws and the 
body has its laws. They are fitted to each other in virtue of the 
pre-established harmony among all substances, since they are all 
representations of one and the same universe" (op. cit., thesis lxxviii) . From 
Descartes's doctrine that matter is essentially inert, Malebranche had drawn 
the conclusion that material substances cannot be true causes, but only 
occasions of the effects produced by God (Occasionalism). Leibniz wished to 
avoid this conclusion. At the same time, he had reduced all the activity of the 
monad to immanent activity. That is he had defined substance as action, and 
explained that the essential action of substance is representation He saw 
clearly, then, that there can be no interaction among monads. The monad, he 
said, has "no windows" through which the activity of other monads can enter it. 
The only recourse left him is to maintain that each monad unfolds its own 
activity, pursues, as it were, its career of representation independently of 
other monads. This would make each monad a monarch. If, however, there were no 
control of the activities of the monad, the world would be a chaos, not the 
cosmos that it is. We must, therefore, conceive that God at the beginning of 
creation so arranged things that the changes in one monad correspond perfectly 
to those in the other monads which belong to its system. In the case of the 
soul and body, for instance, neither has a real influence on the other: but, 
just as two clocks may be so perfectly constructed and so accurately adjusted 
that, though independent of each other, they keep exactly the same time, so it 
is arranged that the monads of the body put forth their activity in such a way 
that to each physical activity of the monads of the body there corresponds a 
psychical activity of the monad of the soul. This is the famous doctrine of 
pre-established harmony. "According to this system", says Leibniz, "bodies act 
as if (to suppose the impossible) there were no souls at all, and souls act as 
if there were no bodies, and yet both body and soul act as if the one were 
influencing the other" (op. cit., thesis lxxxii). Thus the monad is not really 
a monarch, but a subject of God's Kingdom, which is the universe, "the true 
city of God".

Dr. Roger Clough NIST (ret.) 3/26/2013 
"Coincidences are God's way of remaining anonymous."
- Albert Einstein

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