Can concepts alone such as numbers be monads ? 
Can concepts alone-- mental concepts (such as numbers) that do not refer to 
corporeal bodies -- be monads ?  
Monads are complete concepts unextended in space, that correspond to material 
bodies extended in space. So monads 
must be one end of a dipole having a concept at one end and a material body at 
the other.  

Then can numbers be monads ? No, because they have to physical form.  

How about truth or reason? No, for the same reason. 

What about perception, or self or consciousness or soul? Yes, these are 
monads because they also have a material being at the other end of a dipole. 

What about God or some other supreme being ? God is the only "monad " 
possible without a material correspondence. God is pure spirit with no 
on the material world. He is the seer and doer of everything, but is beyond the 
One might think of God as the seer and doer of everything who sees the world and
acts on it through the supreme monad.

So man cannot be God-like. 

Dr. Roger Clough NIST (ret.) 5/6/2013

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