Leibniz's quantization of spacetime.  

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/leibniz-physics/  

Leibniz, the Idealist 17th century german philosopher, saw the world in 
suprisingly modern, even  
premoderm. In the field of electericity, the name of Tesla comes to mind. 
Leibniz's conceptualHis quantization of spacetime is only now being implemented 
by quantum cosmlogists such as Smolin..  

a) Spacetime, since it is infinitely divisible, does not qualify as a 
substance, since one can always furether divide space (what one considers to be 
a substance) in two.  

b) Thus space is only dimensional and intuitive but not physical. It is thus 
not absolute, as Newton saw it, but only a relative measure of distance between 
bodies, this distance not being 
 physical but only mathematical. It is an empty receptacle, sotospeak, filled 
entirely with monads (complete, real, mental concepts of physical objects).  

(c) Although Einstein in fact discovered the quantized notion of photons, he 
did not apply this quantized thinking to his theory of relativity, in which the 
speed of time was taken as relative to the speed of light, an asolute value.  

(d) Time similarly was taken by Leibniz to be quantized, for God constantly 
views and adjusts the universe only in discrete steps, at a very rapid sampling 
rate to accord with the hanging indirectly 
perceived perceptions? of each monad. To use a homely example, it is s if the 
succession of the universe were written on a deck of cards. Then as in movies 
of the early twentieth century, the 
illusion of continuous motion is perceived by fanning the deck with one's 
thumb.  

(e) Leibniz believed, as did Einstein much later, that space was a raceway of 
possible paths, these paths curved according to the mass of the object.   

f) That being so, we can consider a particle with mass and its possible paths 
of travel,  
as a particle-spacetime quantum, even through the "particle" might be the 
earth.   

g) Due to the holographic nature of Leibniz's monadic particles, the universe 
is completely entangled and one cannot change a part without changing the 
entire universe.  
Thus, for example, every action creates a reaction. The spacetime field of 
every particle being possible rather than actual paths, the particle and its 
spacetime field is a quantum.  
Thus the universe consists of a possible universe, which is a quantum 
probability field.   

    
Roger B Clough NIST (ret.) [1/1/2000]  
See my Leibniz site at  
http://independent.academia.edu/RogerClough

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