Kant's disproof of materialism and empiricism 

Materialists argue that in essence we are no more than our bodies.
Empiricists such as Hume ruled out the possible influence of anything 
in our perception of objects.

But that position was disproven by Kant, for example in his transcdendent 
deduction of 
the role of the self in perception 
in which cognitive science and philosophers such as Dennett and Chalmers
seems to have overlooked the critical importance of the transcendental.

As a result, Kant gave this argument against materialism and empiricism:


"Kant proposed a "Copernican Revolution-in-reverse", saying that: 

Up to now it has been assumed that all our cognition must conform to the 
objects [materialism and positivism] but ... let us once try whether we do not 
get farther with the problems of 
metaphysics by assuming that the objects must conform to our 
cognition[transcendental idealism]."

Dr. Roger B Clough NIST (ret.) [1/1/2000]
See my Leibniz site at


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