Here's another philosophical/computational paper by Scott Aaronson, which I think is more interesting than the one on Knightian freedom. It's also quite long (58pg). Section 4 is most relevant to AI and Turing tests.

arXiv:1108.1791v3 [cs.CC] 14 Aug 2011

Why Philosophers Should Care About Computational Complexity
Scott Aaronson
One might think that, once we know something is computable, how efficiently
it can be com- puted is a practical question with little further philosophical 
nce. In this essay, I offer a detailed case that one would be wrong. In particular, I argue that computational complexity theory--the field that studies the resources (such as time, space, and ra
ndomness) needed to solve computational problems--leads to new perspectives on 
the nature
of mathematical knowledge, the strong AI debate, computationalism, the problem 
of logical omn
iscience, Hume's problem of induction, Goodman's grue riddle, the foundations 
of quantum mech
anics, economic rationality, closed timelike curves, and several other topics of philosophical int erest. I end by discussing aspects of complexity theory itself that could benefit from philosop hical analysis.


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