Here's another philosophical/computational paper by Scott Aaronson, which I think is more
interesting than the one on Knightian freedom. It's also quite long (58pg). Section 4 is
most relevant to AI and Turing tests.
arXiv:1108.1791v3 [cs.CC] 14 Aug 2011
Why Philosophers Should Care About Computational Complexity
One might think that, once we know something is computable, how efficiently
it can be com- puted is a practical question with little further philosophical
nce. In this essay, I offer a detailed case that one would be wrong. In particular, I
computational complexity theory--the field that studies the resources (such as time, space,
ndomness) needed to solve computational problems--leads to new perspectives on
of mathematical knowledge, the strong AI debate, computationalism, the problem
of logical omn
iscience, Hume's problem of induction, Goodman's grue riddle, the foundations
of quantum mech
anics, economic rationality, closed timelike curves, and several other topics of
philosophical int erest. I end by discussing aspects of complexity theory itself that
could benefit from philosop hical analysis.
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