On Tuesday, January 29, 2019 at 5:03:11 AM UTC-6, Philip Thrift wrote:
> This replaces space, time, particles, fields with histories.
> I think this is compatible with universal machines.
> https://codicalist.wordpress.com/2019/01/28/histories-of-phenomenally-everything-hope/
> - pt

This illustrates a problem with the epistemology of physics. It stems from 
Newton's laws, in particular the second law of motion F = ma. On the left 
hand side we have the dynamics in a force. We have on the right a physical 
quantity in the mass of a body as a scalar quantity. We then have the 

a = lim_{Δt → 0}Δ^2x/Δt^2 = d^2x/dt^2.

This then multiplies the physical scalar mass to give a dynamical, which 
means measurable, force that has a direction. We can then think of this as 
a strange equation that multiplies a physical quantity by a geometric 
quantity that then gives a dynamical force that is physical. Issac Newton 
wrote this according to a construction called fluxions, which in time gave 
was to the calculus based more on Leibniz and ultimately Weierstrass. Yet 
the early period was full of roiling controversy over what we meant by 
these infinitesimals and so forth. The geometric aspect of Newton's second 
law appeared to have a different meaning from what would be expected of 
something physical.

This confusion continues into general relativity. We might write the 
Einstein field equation as 

Geometric curvature = physical dynamics,

where Einstein was most enamored with the left hand side, calling it 
marble, while the right hand side he cited as wood. There is the mixing of 
categories in general relativity that is remarkably similar to Newtonian 
mechanics. The general theory of relativity is based on the equivalence 
principle, and this tells us that for a sufficiently local frame there is 
no experiment that can determine if the frame is global in free space or in 
a gravitational field. This gives the sort of calculus rule, small frames 
removes geometric information and thus dynamics, and the geometrodynamical 
theory is built from atlas-chart constructions on such infinitesimal frames.

General relativity gives geometry more of an active role. There may be 
gravitational waves, undulations of space that evolve in time, that we 
observe by the physical displacement of interferometer elements. We have in 
our minds these mental models of space and spacetime, but ultimately we 
have a category problem; space and spacetime while defined by clocks and 
rulers, is not in of itself something that has direct physics. 

We might then consider quantum gravitation. I think that spacetime is an 
emergent property of quantum entanglement. Given a group G for the 
symmetries of a quantum system or field, then in the Cartan decomposition G 
= H×K the subgroup H is G modulo the action of K so H = G/K, and for a 
quantum system this means the wave function is invariant with respect to 
some description. Such as for entangled spins, the entangled wave function 
has no description according to the spins. 

In general relativity dynamics can be thought of as what extremizes the 
action S = ∫d^4x sqrt(g)R, for R the Ricci curvature. Action and entropy 
share an equivalency under the euclideanized map t/ħ = 1/kT for t time and 
T temperature. We can also work this within complexity, and with quantum 
gravitation the importance is with entanglement entropy or complexity. This 
means that quantum gravitation is built from quantum states, which as we 
all should be aware are not ontological entities in a standard sense. We 
still have physics, in particular the aspect of physics that conveys 
geometric or spatial relationship content, that is not ontologically solid. 
This appears to be a fundamental aspect of physics, or at least physics as 
we can understand.

For this reason I think ideas that have spacetime composed of little 
elements that are physical are not likely correct. This has been a long 
standing critique I have of quantum gravitation theories outside of string 
theory. This is not to say I think string theory has everything sewed up. 
However, these various ideas such as LQG, DT and SD etc seem to have 
category conflicts.


> Histories Of Phenomenally Everything (HOPE)
>             *or* Everything Histories (EH)
> <https://www.bcdb.com/cartoons/Other_Studios/W/Jay_Ward_Productions/Rocky_and_His_Friends/Peabody_s_Improbable_History/>
> *Perhaps… we must also give up, by principle, the space-time continuum,” 
> he wrote. “It is not unimaginable that human ingenuity will some day find 
> methods which will make it possible to proceed along such a path. At the 
> present time, however, such a program looks like an attempt to breathe in 
> empty space.*
> — Albert Einstein
> In a HOPE-ful ontology, histories <https://arxiv.org/abs/1002.0589> are 
> the fundamental constituents of the universe. They replace spacetime 
> <https://gizmodo.com/a-new-way-of-thinking-about-spacetime-that-turns-everyt-1741498475>
> —by *embedding*(bits of) spacetime within themselves.
>    - Spacetime is derived from histories. (Some like the word *emerges*here.) 
>    The spacetime continuum is replaced with historical paths (curves or 
> walks).
>    - There are possible histories and actual histories. Possible 
>    histories reenforce or interfere with each other (via the path integral).
>    - Histories replace not only spacetime, but particles and fields as 
>    well, which are defined in terms of *ensembles* of histories. 
>    Histories have *physical* properties, so a particular history can be 
>    an ‘electron’ history, for example.
>    - Histories have a path representation as a *sequence* going backwards 
>    in time. An element of the path sequence could be (στ,φ), where στ is some 
>    sort of spacetime-like parameter and φ is a physical parameter.* The 
>    reverse paths (going forward in time) are called *futures*. In a 
>    biverse (*reflective path integral* 
>    <https://codicalist.wordpress.com/2018/03/16/mirror-mirror/> universe), 
>    retrocausality could be a feature.
>    - Underspecified above: The type of path (*sequence*) and στ; how 
>    histories interact.
> * In a panpsychist theory 
> <https://codicalist.wordpress.com/2019/01/22/matter-gets-psyched/>, it 
> would be (στ,φ,ψ), where ψ is the psychical parameter.
> HOPE can also be Histories Of Practically Everything
> Philip Thrif <https://codicalist.wordpress.com/bio>

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