Two recent books:

The First Minds: Caterpillars, Karyotes, and Consciousness
Arthur S. Reber

Brain-Mind: From Neurons to Consciousness and Creativity
Paul Thagard

When Did Consciousness Begin?
Paul Thagard

Thagard's 10 hypotheses:

1. Consciousness has always existed, because God is conscious and eternal.

2. Consciousness began when the universe formed, around 13.7 billion years 

3. Consciousness began with single-celled life, around 3.7 billion years 
ago (Reber). 

4. Consciousness began with multicellular plants, around 850 million years 

5. Consciousness began when animals such as jellyfish got thousands of 
neurons, around 580 million years ago. 

6. Consciousness began when insects and fish developed larger brains with 
about a million neurons (honeybees) or 10 million neurons (zebrafish) 
around 560 million years ago. 

7. Consciousness began when animals such as birds and mammals developed 
much larger brains with hundreds of millions neurons, around 200 million 
years ago. [Thagard]

8. Consciousness began with humans, homo sapiens, around 200,000 years ago.

9. Consciousness began when human culture became advanced, around 3000 
years ago (Julian Jaynes).  

10. Consciousness does not exist, as it is just a scientific mistake 
(behaviorism} or a “user illusion” (Daniel Dennett). 

- pt

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