Epicurus: Psychical [soul] atoms combine with physical [body] atoms to make conscious beings. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/epicurus/#PsycEthi *Having established the physical basis of the world, Epicurus proceeds to explain the nature of the soul (this, at least, is the order in which Lucretius sets things out). This too, of course, consists of atoms: first, there is nothing that is not made up of atoms and void (secondary qualities are simply accidents of the arrangement of atoms), and second, an incorporeal entity could neither act on nor be moved by bodies, as the soul is seen to do (e.g., it is conscious of what happens to the body, and it initiates physical movement). Epicurus maintains that soul atoms are particularly fine and are distributed throughout the body (LH 64), and it is by means of them that we have sensations (aisthêseis) and the experience of pain and pleasure, which Epicurus calls pathê (a term used by Aristotle and others to signify emotions instead). Body without soul atoms is unconscious and inert, and when the atoms of the body are disarranged so that it can no longer support conscious life, the soul atoms are scattered and no longer retain the capacity for sensation (LH 65). There is also a part of the human soul that is concentrated in the chest, and is the seat of the higher intellectual functions. The distinction is important, because it is in the rational part that error of judgment enters in. Sensation, like pain and pleasure, is incorrigible just because it is a function of the non-rational part, which does not modify a perception — that is, the reception of lamina emitted from macroscopic bodies — by the addition of opinion or belief.* is an ancient precursor to Realistic Monism (Why Physicalism Entails Panpsychism) Galen Strawson http://www.sjsu.edu/people/anand.vaidya/courses/c2/s0/Realistic-Monism---Why-Physicalism-Entails-Panpsychism-Galen-Strawson.pdf Physicalist panpsychism (Blackwell Companion to Consciousness) Galen Strawson https://www.academia.edu/25420435/Physicalist_panpsychism_2017_draft Note: Strawson uses "physicalism" to mean "materialism" since he thinks physics - what counts as its subject matter (pun intended) - will change in the future. - pt -- You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Groups "Everything List" group. To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send an email to everything-list+unsubscr...@googlegroups.com. To post to this group, send email to email@example.com. Visit this group at https://groups.google.com/group/everything-list. For more options, visit https://groups.google.com/d/optout.