>From bRhad-aaraNyaka-upaniSat:

1. In the beginning this was Self alone, in the shape of a person (purusha). He 
looking round saw nothing but his Self. He first said, 'This is I;' therefore 
he became I by name. Therefore even now, if a man is asked, he first says, 
'This is I,' and then pronounces the other name which he may have. And because 
before (pûrva) all this, he (the Self) burnt down (ush) all evils, therefore he 
was a person (pur-usha). Verily he who knows this, burns down every one who 
tries to be before him.

2. He feared, and therefore any one who is lonely fears. He thought, 'As there 
is nothing but myself, why should I fear?' Thence his fear passed away. For 
what should he have feared? Verily fear arises from a second only.

3. But he felt no delight. Therefore a man who is lonely feels no delight. He 
wished for a second. He was so large as man and wife together. He then made 
this his Self to fall in two (pat), and thence arose husband (pati) and wife 
(patnî). Therefore Yâgñavalkya said: 'We two 2 are thus (each of us) like half 
a shell 3.' Therefore the void which was

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there, is filled by the wife. He embraced her, and men were born.

4. She thought, 'How can he embrace me, after having produced me from himself? 
I shall hide myself.'

She then became a cow, the other became a bull and embraced her, and hence cows 
were born. The one became a mare, the other a stallion; the one a male ass, the 
other a female ass. He embraced her, and hence one-hoofed animals were born. 
The one became a she-goat, the other a he-goat; the one became a ewe 1, the 
other a ram. He embraced her, and hence goats and sheep were born. And thus he 
created everything that exists in pairs, down to the ants.

5. He knew, 'I indeed am this creation, for I created all this.' Hence he 
became the creation, and he who knows this lives in this his creation.

6. Next he thus produced fire by rubbing. From the mouth, as from the 
fire-hole, and from the hands he created fire 2. Therefore both the mouth and 
the hands are inside without hair, for the fire-hole is inside without hair.

And when they say, 'Sacrifice to this or sacrifice to that god,' each god is 
but his manifestation, for he is all gods.

Now, whatever there is moist, that he created from seed; this is Soma. So far 
verily is this universe either food or eater. Soma indeed is food, Agni eater. 
This is the highest creation of Brahman,

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when he created the gods from his better part 1, and when he, who was (then) 
mortal 2, created the immortals. Therefore it was the highest creation. And he 
who knows this, lives in this his highest creation.

7. Now all this was then undeveloped. It became developed by form and name, so 
that one could say, 'He, called so and so, is such a one 3.' Therefore at 
present also all this is developed by name and form, so that one can say, 'He, 
called so and so, is such a one.'

He (Brahman or the Self) entered thither, to the very tips of the finger-nails, 
as a razor might be fitted in a razor-case, or as fire in a fire-place 4.

He cannot be seen, for, in part only, when breathing, he is breath by name; 
when speaking, speech by name; when seeing, eye by name; when hearing, ear by 
name; when thinking, mind by name. All these are but the names of his acts. And 
he who worships (regards) him as the one or the other, does not know him, for 
he is apart from this (when qualified) by the one or the other (predicate). Let 
men worship him as Self, for in the Self all these are one. This Self is the 
footstep of everything, for through it one knows everything 5. And as one can 
find again by footsteps what was lost, thus he who knows this finds glory and 

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8. This, which is nearer to us than anything, this Self, is dearer than a son, 
dearer than wealth, dearer than all else.

And if one were to say to one who declares another than the Self dear, that he 
will lose what is dear to him, very likely it would be so. Let him worship the 
Self alone as dear. He who worships the Self alone as dear, the object of his 
love will never perish 1.

9. Here they say: 'If men think that by knowledge of Brahman they will become 
everything, what then did that Brahman know, from whence all this sprang?'

10. Verily in the beginning this was Brahman, that Brahman knew (its) Self 
only, saying, 'I am Brahman.' From it all this sprang. Thus, whatever Deva was 
awakened (so as to know Brahman), he indeed became that (Brahman); and the same 
with Rishis and men. The Rishi Vâmadeva saw and understood it, singing, 'I was 
Manu (moon), I was the sun.' Therefore now also he who thus knows that he is 
Brahman, becomes all this, and even the Devas cannot prevent it, for he himself 
is their Self.

Now if a man worships another deity, thinking the deity is one and he another, 
he does not know. He is like a beast for the Devas. For verily, as many beasts 
nourish a man, thus does every man nourish the Devas. If only one beast is 
taken away, it is not pleasant; how much more when many are taken! Therefore it 
is not pleasant to the Devas that men should know this.

11. Verily in the beginning this was Brahman, one

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only. That being one, was not strong enough. It created still further the most 
excellent Kshatra (power), viz. those Kshatras (powers) among the 
Devas,--Indra, Varuna, Soma, Rudra, Parganya, Yama, Mrityu, Îsâna. Therefore 
there is nothing beyond the Kshatra, and therefore at the Râgasûya sacrifice 
the Brâhmana sits down below the Kshatriya. He confers that glory on the 
Kshatra alone. But Brahman is (nevertheless) the birth-place of the Kshatra. 
Therefore though a king is exalted, he sits down at the end (of the sacrifice) 
below the Brahman, as his birth-place. He who injures him, injures his own 
birth-place. He becomes worse, because he has injured one better than himself.

12. He 1 was not strong enough. He created the Vis (people), the classes of 
Devas which in their different orders are called Vasus, Rudras, Âdityas, Visve 
Devas, Maruts.

13. He was not strong enough. He created the Sûdra colour (caste), as Pûshan 
(as nourisher). This earth verily is Pûshan (the nourisher); for the earth 
nourishes all this whatsoever.

14. He was not strong enough. He created still further the most excellent Law 
(dharma). Law is the Kshatra (power) of the Kshatra 2, therefore there is 
nothing higher than the Law. Thenceforth even a weak man rules a stronger with 
the help of the Law, as with the help of a king. Thus the Law is what is called 
the true. And if a man declares what is true, they say he declares the Law; and 
if he declares the Law, they say he declares what is true. Thus both are the 

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15. There are then this Brahman, Kshatra, Vis, and Sûdra. Among the Devas that 
Brahman existed as Agni (fire) only, among men as Brâhmana, as Kshatriya 
through the (divine) Kshatriya, as Vaisya through the (divine) Vaisya, as Sûdra 
through the (divine) Sûdra. Therefore people wish for their future state among 
the Devas through Agni (the sacrificial fire) only; and among men through the 
Brâhmana, for in these two forms did Brahman exist.

Now if a man departs this life without having seen his true future life (in the 
Self), then that Self, not being known, does not receive and bless him, as if 
the Veda had not been read, or as if a good work had not been done. Nay, even 
if one who does not know that (Self), should perform here on earth some great 
holy work, it will Perish for him in the end. Let a man worship the Self only 
as his true state. If a man worships the Self only as his true state, his work 
does not Perish, for whatever he desires that he gets from that Self.

16. Now verily this Self (of the ignorant man) is the world 1 of all creatures. 
In so far as man sacrifices and pours out libations, he is the world of the 
Devas; in so far as he repeats the hymns, &c., he is the world of the Rishis; 
in so far as he offers cakes to the Fathers and tries to obtain offspring, he 
is the world of the Fathers; in so far as he gives shelter and food to men, he 
is the world of men; in so far as he finds fodder and water for the animals, he 
is the world of the animals; in so far as quadrupeds, birds, and even ants live 
in his houses, he is their world. And as every one wishes his own world not to 
be injured,

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thus all beings wish that he who knows this should not be injured. Verily this 
is known and has been well reasoned.

17. In the beginning this was Self alone, one only. He desired, 'Let there be a 
wife for me that I may have offspring, and let there be wealth for me that I 
may offer sacrifices.' Verily this is the whole desire, and, even if wishing 
for more, he would not find it. Therefore now also a lonely person desires, 
'Let there be a wife for me that I may have offspring, and let there be wealth 
for me that I may offer sacrifices.' And so long as he does not obtain either 
of these things, he thinks he is incomplete. Now his completeness (is made up 
as follows): mind is his self (husband); speech the wife; breath the child; the 
eye all worldly wealth, for he finds it with the eye; the ear his divine 
wealth, for he hears it with the ear. The body (âtman) is his work, for with 
the body he works. This is the fivefold 1 sacrifice, for fivefold is the 
animal, fivefold man, fivefold all this whatsoever. He who knows this, obtains 
all this.

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