Sandhi (putting together*) is a phonological feature, prolly common in many 
languages.
 In Sanskrit, it's especially prominent, and perhaps one of the main reasons 
for the difficulty of learning
 this Holy Language.
 

 Read more: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandhi 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandhi
 

 The word praaNaayaama consists of two words: praaNa and (most probably) 
aayaama.
 

 (The theoretically possible combinations are at least the following:
 

 praaNa + ayaama 

 praaNa + aayaama 

 praaNaa + yaama
 praaNaa + ayaama
 praaNaa + aayaama)
 

 So, the most likely sandhi in this case seems to be praaNa + aayaama -> 
praaNaayaama.
 

 The word praaNa is a combination of the prefix pra** + noun ana*** from the 
verbal root (dhaatu) an****.
 (In this case *internal* sandhi causes the dental n to change to the cerebral 
N because of
 the preceding r-sound! Cerebral or retroflex sounds are perhaps the main 
reason why many Indians
 speaking English sound so "funny"...)
 

 

 -----------------------------
 * 
 saMdhi  m. putting together, junction, connection; union or intercourse with 
(instr.)....
   **pra 1 ind. before ; forward , in front , on , forth (mostly in connection 
with a verb , esp. with a verb of motion which is often to be supplied ; 
sometimes repeated before the verb cf. Pa1n2. 8-1 , 6 ; rarely as a separate 
word e.g. AitBr. ii , 40) ; as a prefix to subst. = forth , away cf. 
%{pra-vRtti} , %{pra-sthAna} ; as pref. to adj. = excessively , very , much cf. 
%{pra-caNDa} , %{pra-matta} ; in nouns of relationship = great- cf. 
%{pra-pitAmaha} , %{pra-pautra} ; (`" according to native lexicographers it may 
be used in the senses of %{gati} , %{A-rambha} , %{ut-karSa} , %{sarvato-bhAva} 
, %{prAthamya} , %{khyAti} , %{ut-patti} , %{vy-avahAra}) RV. &c. &c. [Cf. 
%{puras} , %{purA} , %{pUrva} ; Zd. {fra} ; Gk. $ ; Lat. {pro} ; Slav. {pra-} , 
{pro-} ; Lith. {pra-} ; &199671[652 ,2] Goth. {fau4r} , {fau4ra} ; Germ. {vor} 
; Eng. {fore}.]

 *** ana 2 m. breath, spiration.
**** an, aniti, anatibreathe, live. -- {apa} breathe out or away. {ud} [[,]] 
breathe up, breathe away. {pra} breathe in, respire, live. C. revive. {vi} 
breathe, breathe through. {sam} breathe, live. {anusam} breathe after.
  

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