“A2F is the future,” says Holmes, “because it needs 100 times less land and 
water than biofuels, and can be scaled up and sited anywhere. But for it to 
work, it will have to reduce costs to little more than it costs to extract oil 
today, and – even trickier – persuade countries to set a global carbon price.”

 Meanwhile, 4,500 miles away, in a large blue shed on a small industrial estate 
in the South Yorkshire coalfield outside Sheffield, the UK Carbon Capture and 
Storage Research Centre (UKCCSRC) is experimenting with other ways to produce 
negative emissions.


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