--- In FairfieldLife@yahoogroups.com, new_morning_blank_slate
<[EMAIL PROTECTED]> wrote:
>
> --- In FairfieldLife@yahoogroups.com, Vaj <vajranatha@> wrote:
> >
> >
> > On Jun 5, 2006, at 2:45 PM, shempmcgurk wrote:
> >
> > > Thirdly, drugs.  That was the era when drugs became fashionable.
> > > What's so good about that?
> >
> > We found out we were being lied to? :
> >
> > "NO ASSOCIATION AT ALL...EVEN A SUGGESTION OF SOME PROTECTIVE
EFFECT" 
> > BETWEEN HEAVY SMOKING OF MARIJUANA AND CANCER...
> > Washington Post   |  Marc Kaufman   |  Posted May 26, 2006 08:14 AM
> >
> > 
> > AP/CP, Richard Lam
> > The largest study of its kind has unexpectedly concluded that
smoking 
> > marijuana, even regularly and heavily, does not lead to lung cancer. 
> > The new findings "were against our expectations," said Donald
Tashkin 
> > of the University of California at Los Angeles, a pulmonologist who 
> > has studied marijuana for 30 years.
> >
> > "We hypothesized that there would be a positive association between 
> > marijuana use and lung cancer, and that the association would be
more 
> > positive with heavier use," he said. "What we found instead was no 
> > association at all, and even a suggestion of some protective effect."
>



>
> OK, I'll see your pot article and raise you one (to be posted later).
>
> Pot hardly first became fashionable, nor was first seen as a
spiritual substance, in the 60's
>
> -------
>
> Cannabis has a long history of spiritual use, especially in India,
> where it has been used by wandering spiritual sadhus for centuries.
> The most famous religious group in the West to use cannabis in a
> spiritual context are the Rastafari movement, though they are by no
> means the only group. Some historians and etymologists have claimed
> that cannabis was used by ancient Jews, early Christians and Muslims
> of the Sufi order.
>
> * 1 Rastafari use
> * 2 Judeo-Christian use
> * 3 Muslim use
> * 4 Hindu use
> * 5 Sikh use
> * 6 Others
> * 7 See also
> * 8 References
> * 9 External links
>
> Rastafari use
>
> It is not known when Rastafari first made cannabis into something
> sacred, though it is clear that by the late 1940s Rastafari was
> associated with cannabis smoking at the Pinnacle community of Leonard
> Howell. Rastafari claim to know that cannabis is the Tree of Life
> mentioned in the Bible. Bob Marley, amongst many others, said, "the
> herb [ganja is the healing of the nations". The use of cannabis, and
> particularly of large pipes called "chalices", is an integral part of
> what Rastafari call Reasoning sessions. (The flaming chalice is also
> the symbol of Unitarian Universalism.) They see cannabis as having the
> capacity to allow the user to penetrate the truth of how things are
> much more clearly, as if the wool had been pulled from one's eyes.
> Thus the Rastafari come together to smoke cannabis in order to discuss
> the truth with each other, reasoning it all out little by little
> through many sessions. In this way Rastafari believe that cannabis
> brings the user closer to Jah.
> [edit]
>
> Judeo-Christian use
>
> The holy anointing oil mentioned in various sacred Hebrew texts
> contained, among other ingredients, an herb known as kaneh-bosm
> (fragrant cane). Historically interpreted to mean calamus, there is
> some evidence that the correct interpretation of 'fragrant cane' may
> in fact be cannabis.
>
> The word kaneh-bosm (the singular form of which would be kaneh-bos[1])
> appears several times in the Old Testament as a bartering material,
> incense, and an ingredient in holy anointing oil used by the high
> priest of the temple.[2] The word also appears in Isaiah, [3]
> Jeremiah, [4] Ezekiel[5] and Song of Solomon.[6] Polish anthropologist
> Sula Benet published etymological evidence that suggested a word
> believed to be the Aramaic word for hemp can be read as kannabos and
> appears to be a cognate to the modern word 'cannabis', [7] with the
> root kan meaning "reed" or hemp and bosm meaning "fragrant". Other
> published evidence suggests that cannabis may have been used as a
> topical psychoactive substance in this time period. As anointment is
> the application of topical fragrant, emollient, or medicinal ointment
> for ritual or therapeutic purposes, it is possible that cannabis may
> have been an ingredient in holy anointing oil, producing spiritual
> experiences due to the psychoactive properties of the ingredients.[8]
>
> Rabbinical scholars appear to be divided on the question of what
> kaneh-bosm means. Exodus[9] lists kinamon-bosm (qnmn-bsm) and
> kaneh-bosm (qnh-bsm) separately as ingredients of the holy anointing
> oil used by temple priests, romanized as "v'th qx-lk bsmym r's mr-drvr
> xms m'vt vqnmn-bsm mx&ytv xmsym vm'tym vqnh-bsm xmsym vm'tym".[10]
> Rabbi Diana Villa confirms that "'Kinamon' or 'kinman bosem' is
> definitely cinnamon" but disputes that kaneh-bosm is cannabis,
> offering a number of other possible interpretations from other
> published sources.[11] Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan's annotated Torah
> translation entitled "The Living Torah" includes cannabis among
> several other possible interpretations of kaneh-bosm [12]. In Israel
> some synagogues engage in the smoking of cannabis before the holy
> sabbath to explore a "higher" spiritual learning.
>
> Elders of the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church consider cannabis to be the
> eucharist, [13] claiming it as an oral tradition from Ethiopia dating
> back to the time of Christ.[14] The word "Christ" actually means "the
> anointed one."
>
> The first miracle attributed to Jesus took place in Cana, a name which
> some claim to refer to a place where hemp was grown. Pro-cannabis
> advocates in modern times interpret various parts of the New Testament
> to mean that the "new wine" which Jesus provided at the wedding feast
> was actually cannabis.[15]
>
> Like the Rastafari, some Gnostic Christians have asserted that
> cannabis is the Tree of Life.[16]
> [edit]
>
> Muslim use
>
> Generally in orthodox Islam, the use of cannabis is deemed to be
> khamr, and therefore haraam (forbidden). As with most orthodoxies,
> early practices differ in this. Some say that, as hashish was
> introduced in post-Koranic times, the prohibition of khamr (literally,
> "fermented grape") did not apply to it. Others point to various
> hadith, which equate all intoxicants with khamr, and declare them all
> haraam, "if much intoxicates, then even a little is haraam".
>
> Although cannabis use in Islamic society has been consistently
> present, often but not exclusively in the lower classes, its use
> explicitly for spiritual purposes is most noted among the Sufi. An
> account of the origin of this,
>
> According to one Arab legend, Haydar, the Persian founder of the
> religious order of Sufi, came across the cannabis plant while
> wandering in the Persian mountains. Usually a reserved and silent man,
> when he returned to his monastery after eating some cannabis leaves,
> his disciples were amazed at how talkative and animated (full of
> spirit) he seemed. After cajoling Haydar into telling them what he had
> done to make him feel so happy, his disciples went out into the
> mountains and tried the cannabis for themselves. So it was, according
> to the legend, the Sufis came to know the pleasures of hashish. (Taken
> from the Introduction to A Comprehensive Guide to Cannabis Literature
> by Ernest Abel.)
>
> This story is most likely a myth or a simplification but an
> interesting account nonetheless.
>
> In addition, the warrior sect of the Hashashin were said to have
> smoked cannabis and were given the name "Hashasin" accordingly. This
> notion, traditional in the West, is largely inferred from Marco Polo's
> account of his travels, though it has been disputed.[17]
> [edit]
>
> Hindu use
>
> Cannabis is believed to have been used in India as early as 1000
> B.C.E.. In mainstream, lay religious usage, it is usually taken in
> liquid form as bhang and used during religious ceremonies such as
> marriage, as well as the Hindu celebrations of Holi and
Baisakhi.[18][19]
>
> Hashish, or charas, is widely smoked by Shaivite devotees, and
> cannabis itself is seen as a gift of Shiva to aid in sadhana.
> Wandering ascetic sadhus are often seen smoking charas with a chillum.
>
> The Indian Hemp Drugs Commission Report[20] describes some traditional
> Hindu spiritual uses of cannabis.
>
> Connection of ganja with the worship of Siva.
> 435. It is chiefly in connection with the worship of Siva, the Mahadeo
> or great god of the Hindu trinity, that the hemp plant, and more
> especially perhaps ganja, is associated. The hemp plant is popularly
> believed to have been a great favourite of Siva, and there is a great
> deal of evidence before the Commission to show that the drug in some
> form or other is now extensively used in the exercise of the religious
> practices connected with this form of worship. Reference to the almost
> universal use of hemp drugs by fakirs, jogis, sanyasis, and ascetics
> of all classes, and more particularly of those devoted to the worship
> of Siva, will be found in the paragraphs of this report dealing with
> the classes of the people who consume the drugs. These religious
> ascetics, who are regarded with great veneration by the people at
> large, believe that the hemp plant is a special attribute of the god
> Siva, and this belief is largely shared by the people. Hence the of
> many fond epithets ascribing to ganja the significance of a divine
> pro-party, and the common practice of invoking the deity in terms of
> adoration before placing the chillum or pipe of ganja to the lips.
> There is evidence to show that on almost all occasions of the worship
> of this god, the hemp drugs in some form or other are used by certain
> classes of the people it is established by the evidence of
> Mahamabopadhya Mahesa Chandra Nyayaratna and of other witnesses that
> siddhi is offered to the image of Siva at Benares, Baidynath,
> Tarakeswar, and elsewhere. At the Shivratri festival, and on almost
> all occasions before the on which this worship is practised, there is
> abundant evidence Commission which shows not only that ganja is
> offered to the god and consumed by these classes of the worshippers,
> but that these customs are so intimately connected with their worship
> that they may be considered to form in some sense an integral part of
> it. . . .
> Worship of the hemp plant
> 449. The custom of worshipping the hemp plant, although not so
> prevalent as that of offering hemp to Shiva and other deities of the
> Hindus, would nevertheless appear from the statements of the witnesses
> to exist to some extent in some provinces of India. The reason why
> this fact is not generally known may perhaps be gathered from such
> statements as that of Pandit Dharma Nand Joshi, who says that such
> worship is performed in secret. There may be another cause of the
> denial on the part of the large majority of Hindu witnesses of any
> knowledge of the existence of a custom of worshipping the hemp plant
> in that the educated Hindu will not admit that he worships the
> material object of his adoration, but the deity as represented by it.
> The custom of worshipping the hemp plant, though not confined to the
> Himalayan districts or the northern portions of India alone, where the
> use of the products of the hemp plant is more general among the
> people, is less known as we go south. Still even far south, in some of
> the hilly districts of the Madras Presidency and among the rural
> population, the hemp plant is looked upon with some sort of
> veneration. Mr. J. H. Merriman (witness No. 28, Madras) says: "I know
> of no custom of worshipping the hemp plant, but believe it is held in
> a certain sort of veneration by some classes." Mr. J. Sturrock, the
> Collector of Coimbatore (witness No. 2, Madras), says: "In some few
> localities there is a tradition of sanctity attached to the plant, but
> no regular worship. "The Chairman of the Conjeveram Municipal Board,
> Mr. E. Subramana Iyer (witness No. 143, Madras) says: "There is no
> plant to be worshipped here, but it is generally used as sacrifices to
> some of the minor Hindu deities. "There is a passage quoted from
> Rudrayanmal Danakand and Karmakaud in the report on the use of hemp
> drugs in the Baroda State, which also shows that the worship of the
> bhang plant is enjoined in the Shastras. It is thus stated: "The god
> Shiva says to Parvati-- 'Oh, goddess Parvati, hear the benefits
> derived from bhang. The worship of bhang raises one to my position. In
> Bhabishya Puran it is stated that "on the 13th moon of Chaitra (March
> and April) one who wishes to see the number of his sons and grandsons
> increased must worship Kama (Cupid) in the hemp plant, etc.".
>
> Sikh use
>
> The Sikh religion developed in the Punjab in Mughal times. The common
> use of bhang in religious festivals by Hindus carried over into Sikh
> practice as well. Sikhs were required to observe Dasehra with bhang,
> in commemoration of the founder of the Sikh religion, Guru Nanak.[21]
>
> The Indian Hemp Drugs Commission Report[20] describes the traditional
> use of cannabis in the Sikh religion.
>
> Among the Sikhs the use of bhang as a beverage appears to be common,
> and to be associated with their religious practices. The witnesses who
> refer to this use by the Sikhs appear to regard it as an essential
> part of their religious rites having the authority of the Granth or
> Sikh scripture. Witness Sodhi Iswar Singh, Extra Assistant
> Commissioner, says :"As far as I know, bhang is pounded by the Sikhs
> on the Dasehra day, and it is ordinarily binding upon every Sikh to
> drink it as a sacred draught by mixing water with it. Legend--Guru
> Gobind Singh, the tenth guru, the founder of the Sikh religion, was on
> the gaddi of Baba Nanak in the time of Emperor Aurangzeb. When the
> guru was at Anandpur, tahsil Una, Hoshiarpur district, engaged in
> battle with the Hill Rajas of the Simla, Kangra, and the Hoshiarpur
> districts, the Rains sent an elephant, who was trained in attacking
> and slaying the forces of the enemy with a sword in his trunk and in
> breaking open the gates of forts, to attack and capture the Lohgarh
> fort near Anandpur. The guru gave one of his followers, Bachittar
> Singh, some bhang and a little of opium to eat, and directed him to
> face the said elephant. This brave man obeyed the word of command of
> his leader and attacked the elephant, who was intoxicated and had
> achieved victories in several battles before, with the result that the
> animal was overpowered and the Hill Rajas defeated. The use of bhang,
> therefore, on the Dasehra day is necessary as a sacred draught. It is
> customary among the Sikhs generally to drink bhang, so that Guru
> Gobind Singh has himself said the following poems in praise of bhang:
> "Give me, O Saki (butler), a cup of green colour (bhang), as it is
> required by me at the time of battle (vide 'Suraj Parkash, ' the Sikh
> religious book). "Bhang is also used on the Chandas day, which is a
> festival of the god Sheoji Mahadeva. The Sikhs consider it binding to
> use it on the Dasehra day-The quantity then taken is too small to
> prove injurious." As Sikhs are absolutely prohibited by their religion
> from smoking, the use of ganja and charas in this form is not
> practised by them. of old Sikh times, is annually permitted to collect
> without interference a boat load of bhang, which is afterwards.
> distributed throughout the year to the sadhus and beggars who are
> supported by the dharamsala.
>
> Others
>
> Organized religions founded in the past century are Ethiopian Zion
> Coptic Church, Religion of Jesus Church, THC Ministry, Way of Infinite
> Harmony, Cantheism and Cannabis Assembly. Many individuals also
> consider their use of cannabis to be spiritual regardless of organized
> religion.
> [edit]
>
> See also
>
> * Freedom of thought
>
> References
>
> 1. ^ http://www.gnostics.com/numbers-7.html
> 2. ^ Exodus 30:23
> 3. ^ Isaiah 43:24
> 4. ^ Jeremiah 6:20
> 5. ^ Ezekiel 27:19
> 6. ^ Song of Solomon 4:14
> 7. ^ http://www.njweedman.com/kanehbosm.html
> 8. ^ http://cannabisculture.com/backissues/mayjune96/kanehbosm.html
> 9. ^ Exodus 30:23
> 10. ^ http://bibledbdata.org/onlinebibles/hebrew_translit/02_030.htm
> 11. ^ http://www.schechter.edu/askrabbi/fragrantcane.htm
> 12. ^ http://www.thc-ministry.org/thelivingtorah.jpg
> 13. ^ http://nepenthes.lycaeum.org/Drugs/THC/bible.html
> 14. ^ http://www.erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis_spirit2.shtml
> 15. ^ http://www.ccguide.org.uk/bible.php
> 16. ^ http://www.iamm.com/man-cu.htm.._ABRIDGED_THEOLOGICAL_DISCUSSION
> 17. ^ http://www.erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis_info4.shtml
> 18. ^ http://www.skunked.co.uk/articles/history-intoxicant.htm
> 19. ^ http://www.ukcia.org/research/indian/chapt9.htm
> 20. ^ a b Report of the Indian Hemp Drugs Commission, 1893-94. Simla,
> India: Government Central Printing House, 1894, 7 vols., CHAPTER IX,
> SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS CUSTOMS
> 21. ^ http://www.ukcia.org/research/abel/6.htm
>






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