>      I am unhappy with this IF by 'human being' you go beyond 
> the organism itself.  A culture can produce, say, machines 
> that have capabilities no human being has (X-ray, etc.), and 
> which no single human can have generated the theories 
> involved.  If we observe humans using a battery of machines 
> that materialize various theories, then we can say that the 
> culture is observing human beings.  Scientific data about 
> humans is of this kind.

Dear Stan and colleagues, 

Would this not go beyond both the organism and the psyche, that is, as a
next-order social system among human beings? Science can then be considered
as a special codification of this system of communications. Technology as
its intervention in nature.

This system, of course, should not be considered as a demi-god, but as a
consequence of the non-linear dynamics in the distributions.

With best wishes,  Loet


Loet Leydesdorff 
Amsterdam School of Communications Research (ASCoR)
Kloveniersburgwal 48, 1012 CX Amsterdam
Tel.: +31-20- 525 6598; fax: +31-20- 525 3681 
[EMAIL PROTECTED] ; http://www.leydesdorff.net/ 

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