> I am unhappy with this IF by 'human being' you go beyond > the organism itself. A culture can produce, say, machines > that have capabilities no human being has (X-ray, etc.), and > which no single human can have generated the theories > involved. If we observe humans using a battery of machines > that materialize various theories, then we can say that the > culture is observing human beings. Scientific data about > humans is of this kind.
Dear Stan and colleagues, Would this not go beyond both the organism and the psyche, that is, as a next-order social system among human beings? Science can then be considered as a special codification of this system of communications. Technology as its intervention in nature. This system, of course, should not be considered as a demi-god, but as a consequence of the non-linear dynamics in the distributions. With best wishes, Loet ________________________________ Loet Leydesdorff Amsterdam School of Communications Research (ASCoR) Kloveniersburgwal 48, 1012 CX Amsterdam Tel.: +31-20- 525 6598; fax: +31-20- 525 3681 [EMAIL PROTECTED] ; http://www.leydesdorff.net/ _______________________________________________ fis mailing list firstname.lastname@example.org http://webmail.unizar.es/mailman/listinfo/fis