Dear Yi-Xin, Pedro and FIS Coleagues,

Thank you for kind invitation. I am very glad to take part in FIS.

During the years I have seen a stable interest to the basic problems of
informatics. This was the reason to unite more than 2000 scientists all
over the world in the ITHEA® International Scientific Society (ITHEA® ISS)
and for the last ten years to organize more than 60 conferences, to
publish two Int. Journals and more than 30 books. The Institute of
Information Theories and Applications FOI ITHEA® was established as
independent nongovernmental organization to support the collaboration
between members of ITHEA® ISS. (pls. see ). Let finish this
introductory part with little information about me. My name is Krassimir
Markov. I am mathematician with specialization in computer science and I
have worked in the Institute of Mathematics and Informatics at the
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences since 1975.

I think, firstly we need to answer to the second question - What is the
correct concept of information? –Without proper understanding of
information, the definition of concept “intelligence” as well as all the
answers of the rest questions will be intuitive and not clear.

There exist several common theoretical information paradigms in the
Information Science. May be, the most popular is the approach based on the
generalization of the Shannon's Information Theory [Shannon, 1949], [Lu,
1999]. Another approach is the attempt to synthesize the existing
mathematical theories in a common structure, which is applicable for
explanation of the information phenomena [Cooman et al, 1995].

Besides of this, we need to point the diligence of the many researchers to
give formal or not formal definitions of the concept "information".
Unfortunately, although they are quite attractive in some cases, these
definitions did not bring to any serious theoretical results [Abdeev,
1994], [Bangov, 1995], [Tomov, 1991], [Elstner, 1993].

At the end, there exist some works that claim for theoretical generality
and aspire to be a new approach in the Information Science, but theirs
authors should clear up what they really talk about [Burgin, 1997].

The theoretical base of the informatics needs the philosophical support
and substantiation to become wide accepted scientific paradigm. This way,
the scientific research in the domain of informatics would be able to leap
across its boundaries and to become as elements of the scientific view of

Discovering the common philosophical paradigm has exceptional importance
[Popper, 1968].

Let call it “General Information Theory” (GIT).

Starting point need to be the consideration that the General Information
Theory (GIT) needs to be established as internal non-contradictory system
of contentions [Markov et al, 1993].  Basic requirement is that the GIT
needs to explain the already created particular information theories and

The mathematical structures ought to serve as a tool for achievement the
precise clearness of the philosophical formulations and establishing the
common language for describing and interpreting the information phenomena
and processes.

The second very important requirement is to build the GIT on the base of
the inceptive philosophical definition of the concept "information" using
as less as possible the primary undefined concepts with maximal degree of
philosophical generalization. This requirement follows the consideration
that the concept "information" is not mathematical concept. The behavior,
peculiarity and so on could be described by the mathematical structures
but this is another problem. In this case, the accent is stressed on the
comprehension that the information has purely material determination and
that it is a consequence of the interaction between the material objects
as well as of the real processes and phenomena occurred in them and with

We had started developing the GIT in the period 1977-1980. The first
publication, which represents some elements of GIT, was [Markov, 1984].
The establishment of GIT was not rectilinear. Occasionally, the influences
of other paradigms have disturbed this process and have turned it to the
vain effort (se for example [Burgin, Markov, 1991]).

The fundamental notion of the GIT is the concept "Information". All other
concepts are defined based on this definition. In 1988, the not formal
definition of the concept of Information was published in [Markov, 1988].
It became as a fundamental definition for the GIT [Markov et al, 1993],
[Markov et al, 2003a], [Markov et al, 2007]. The translation of the
philosophical theory into the formal one seems a good approach for
verification of the ideas. Because of this, we try to present the basic
concepts of the General Information Theory not only philosophically but
formally, too [Markov et al, 2003b], [Markov et al, 2004].

GIT is built by three specialized theories:
- Theory of Information,
- Theory of Infos,
- Theory of Inforaction.

The first theory is just aimed to answer the question “What is the correct
concept of information?”. This is not the extension of the Shanon’s Theory
but independent philosophical consideration.

The concept INFOS is abbreviation from “Information Subject”. The main
goal of the Theory of Infos is to give answers of the questions about the
intelligence [Mitov et al, 2010].

The concept INFORACTION is abbreviation from “Information Interaction”. 
The social level of information phenomena is the area where we will find
the answers of the rest very important questions, proposed by Yi-Xin.

Friendly regards

[Abdeev,1994] R.F.Abdeev. The Philosophy of the Information Civilization.
Moscow, VLADOS, 1994. (in Russian)
[Bangov, 1995] I.Bangov. A Graph-Topological Model of Information. Int. J.
Information Theories and Applications, 1995, v.3, n.6, pp.3 9.
[Burgin, 1997] M.S.Burgin. General Information Theory.
[Burgin, Markov, 1991] M.Burgin, Kr.Markov. Formal Definition of the
Concept Materialization. Mathematics and Mathematical Education, BAS,
Sofia, 1991, pp.175 179.
[Cooman et al, 1995] Cooman, D.Ruan, E.Kerre, Eds. Foundations and
Applications of Possibility Theory. World Scientific, Singapore, 1995.
[Elstner, 1993] D.Elstner. About Duality of the Information and
Organization. Int. J. Information Theories and Applications, 1993, v.1,
n.1, pp. 3 5. (in Russian)
[Lu, 1999] C. G.Lu. A Generalisation of Shannon's Information Theory. Int.
J. of General Systems, 28:(6), 1999, pp.453 490.
[Markov et al, 1993] Kr.Markov, Kr.Ivanova, I.Mitov. Basic Concepts of a
General Information Theory. IJ Information Theories and Applications. FOI
ITHEA, Sofia, 1993, Vol.1, No.10, pp.3 10
[Markov et al, 2003a] Kr.Markov, Kr.Ivanova, I.Mitov. General Information
Theory. Basic Formulations. FOI-Commerce, Sofia, 2003.
[Markov et al, 2003b] K. Markov, K. Ivanova, I. Mitov, E.
Velikova-Bandova. The Information. IJ Information Theories and
Applications, FOI ITHEA, Sofia, 2003, Vol.10, No.1, pp.5-9.
[Markov et al, 2004] K. Markov, K. Ivanova, I. Mitov, E. Velikova-Bandova.
Formal Definition of the Concept “INFOS”. Proceedings of the Second
International Conference “Information Research, Applications and
Education” i.TECH 2004, Varna, Bulgaria. Sofia, FOI Commerce, 2004, pp. 71
74. Int. Journal “Information Theories and Applications”, 2004, Vol.11,
No.1, pp.16 19
[Markov et al, 2007] Kr. Markov, Kr. Ivanova, I. Mitov. Basic Structure of
the General Information Theory. Int. Journal “Information Theories and
Applications”, Vol.14/2007, No.:1, pp.5-19.
[Markov, 1984] Kr. Markov. A Multi-domain Access Method. Proc. of Int.
Conf. "Computer Based Scientific Research". Plovdiv, 1984. pp. 558 563.
[Markov, 1988] Kr.Markov. From the Past to the Future of Definition of the
Concept of Information. Proceedings "Programming '88", BAS, Varna 1988,
p.150. (In Bulgarian).
[Mitov et al, 2010] I. Mitov, Kr. Markov, Kr. Ivanova. The Intelligence.
Plenary paper. Third International Scientific Conference “Informatics in
the Scientific Knowledge”. University Publishing House, VFU “Chernorizets
Hrabar”, 2010. ISSN: 1313-4345. pp. 7-13
[Popper, 1968] K.R.Popper. Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of
Scientific Knowledge. Harper & Row, Publishers, New York and Evanston.
[Shannon, 1949] C.E.Shannon. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. In:
The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Ed. C.E.Shannon and W.Weaver.
University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1949.
[Tomov, 1991] K.Tomov. The Resomal-Isomorphic Principle. Arges, Sofia,
1991. (in Bulgarian)

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