Dear Yi-Xin, Pedro and FIS Coleagues, Thank you for kind invitation. I am very glad to take part in FIS.
During the years I have seen a stable interest to the basic problems of informatics. This was the reason to unite more than 2000 scientists all over the world in the ITHEA® International Scientific Society (ITHEA® ISS) and for the last ten years to organize more than 60 conferences, to publish two Int. Journals and more than 30 books. The Institute of Information Theories and Applications FOI ITHEA® was established as independent nongovernmental organization to support the collaboration between members of ITHEA® ISS. (pls. see www.ithea.org ). Let finish this introductory part with little information about me. My name is Krassimir Markov. I am mathematician with specialization in computer science and I have worked in the Institute of Mathematics and Informatics at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences since 1975. I think, firstly we need to answer to the second question - What is the correct concept of information? Without proper understanding of information, the definition of concept intelligence as well as all the answers of the rest questions will be intuitive and not clear. There exist several common theoretical information paradigms in the Information Science. May be, the most popular is the approach based on the generalization of the Shannon's Information Theory [Shannon, 1949], [Lu, 1999]. Another approach is the attempt to synthesize the existing mathematical theories in a common structure, which is applicable for explanation of the information phenomena [Cooman et al, 1995]. Besides of this, we need to point the diligence of the many researchers to give formal or not formal definitions of the concept "information". Unfortunately, although they are quite attractive in some cases, these definitions did not bring to any serious theoretical results [Abdeev, 1994], [Bangov, 1995], [Tomov, 1991], [Elstner, 1993]. At the end, there exist some works that claim for theoretical generality and aspire to be a new approach in the Information Science, but theirs authors should clear up what they really talk about [Burgin, 1997]. The theoretical base of the informatics needs the philosophical support and substantiation to become wide accepted scientific paradigm. This way, the scientific research in the domain of informatics would be able to leap across its boundaries and to become as elements of the scientific view of life. Discovering the common philosophical paradigm has exceptional importance [Popper, 1968]. Let call it General Information Theory (GIT). Starting point need to be the consideration that the General Information Theory (GIT) needs to be established as internal non-contradictory system of contentions [Markov et al, 1993]. Basic requirement is that the GIT needs to explain the already created particular information theories and paradigms. The mathematical structures ought to serve as a tool for achievement the precise clearness of the philosophical formulations and establishing the common language for describing and interpreting the information phenomena and processes. The second very important requirement is to build the GIT on the base of the inceptive philosophical definition of the concept "information" using as less as possible the primary undefined concepts with maximal degree of philosophical generalization. This requirement follows the consideration that the concept "information" is not mathematical concept. The behavior, peculiarity and so on could be described by the mathematical structures but this is another problem. In this case, the accent is stressed on the comprehension that the information has purely material determination and that it is a consequence of the interaction between the material objects as well as of the real processes and phenomena occurred in them and with them. We had started developing the GIT in the period 1977-1980. The first publication, which represents some elements of GIT, was [Markov, 1984]. The establishment of GIT was not rectilinear. Occasionally, the influences of other paradigms have disturbed this process and have turned it to the vain effort (se for example [Burgin, Markov, 1991]). The fundamental notion of the GIT is the concept "Information". All other concepts are defined based on this definition. In 1988, the not formal definition of the concept of Information was published in [Markov, 1988]. It became as a fundamental definition for the GIT [Markov et al, 1993], [Markov et al, 2003a], [Markov et al, 2007]. The translation of the philosophical theory into the formal one seems a good approach for verification of the ideas. Because of this, we try to present the basic concepts of the General Information Theory not only philosophically but formally, too [Markov et al, 2003b], [Markov et al, 2004]. GIT is built by three specialized theories: - Theory of Information, - Theory of Infos, - Theory of Inforaction. The first theory is just aimed to answer the question What is the correct concept of information?. This is not the extension of the Shanons Theory but independent philosophical consideration. The concept INFOS is abbreviation from Information Subject. The main goal of the Theory of Infos is to give answers of the questions about the intelligence [Mitov et al, 2010]. The concept INFORACTION is abbreviation from Information Interaction. The social level of information phenomena is the area where we will find the answers of the rest very important questions, proposed by Yi-Xin. Friendly regards Krassimir mar...@foibg.com www.ithea.org, www.foibg.com Bibliography [Abdeev,1994] R.F.Abdeev. The Philosophy of the Information Civilization. Moscow, VLADOS, 1994. (in Russian) [Bangov, 1995] I.Bangov. A Graph-Topological Model of Information. Int. J. Information Theories and Applications, 1995, v.3, n.6, pp.3 9. [Burgin, 1997] M.S.Burgin. General Information Theory. http://www.math.ucla.edu/~mburgin/res/compsc/Site3GTI.htm [Burgin, Markov, 1991] M.Burgin, Kr.Markov. Formal Definition of the Concept Materialization. Mathematics and Mathematical Education, BAS, Sofia, 1991, pp.175 179. [Cooman et al, 1995] G.de Cooman, D.Ruan, E.Kerre, Eds. Foundations and Applications of Possibility Theory. World Scientific, Singapore, 1995. [Elstner, 1993] D.Elstner. About Duality of the Information and Organization. Int. J. Information Theories and Applications, 1993, v.1, n.1, pp. 3 5. (in Russian) [Lu, 1999] C. G.Lu. A Generalisation of Shannon's Information Theory. Int. J. of General Systems, 28:(6), 1999, pp.453 490. [Markov et al, 1993] Kr.Markov, Kr.Ivanova, I.Mitov. Basic Concepts of a General Information Theory. IJ Information Theories and Applications. FOI ITHEA, Sofia, 1993, Vol.1, No.10, pp.3 10 [Markov et al, 2003a] Kr.Markov, Kr.Ivanova, I.Mitov. General Information Theory. Basic Formulations. FOI-Commerce, Sofia, 2003. [Markov et al, 2003b] K. Markov, K. Ivanova, I. Mitov, E. Velikova-Bandova. The Information. IJ Information Theories and Applications, FOI ITHEA, Sofia, 2003, Vol.10, No.1, pp.5-9. [Markov et al, 2004] K. Markov, K. Ivanova, I. Mitov, E. Velikova-Bandova. Formal Definition of the Concept INFOS. Proceedings of the Second International Conference Information Research, Applications and Education i.TECH 2004, Varna, Bulgaria. Sofia, FOI Commerce, 2004, pp. 71 74. Int. Journal Information Theories and Applications, 2004, Vol.11, No.1, pp.16 19 [Markov et al, 2007] Kr. Markov, Kr. Ivanova, I. Mitov. Basic Structure of the General Information Theory. Int. Journal Information Theories and Applications, Vol.14/2007, No.:1, pp.5-19. [Markov, 1984] Kr. Markov. A Multi-domain Access Method. Proc. of Int. Conf. "Computer Based Scientific Research". Plovdiv, 1984. pp. 558 563. [Markov, 1988] Kr.Markov. From the Past to the Future of Definition of the Concept of Information. Proceedings "Programming '88", BAS, Varna 1988, p.150. (In Bulgarian). [Mitov et al, 2010] I. Mitov, Kr. Markov, Kr. Ivanova. The Intelligence. Plenary paper. Third International Scientific Conference Informatics in the Scientific Knowledge. University Publishing House, VFU Chernorizets Hrabar, 2010. ISSN: 1313-4345. pp. 7-13 [Popper, 1968] K.R.Popper. Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge. Harper & Row, Publishers, New York and Evanston. 1968. [Shannon, 1949] C.E.Shannon. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. In: The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Ed. C.E.Shannon and W.Weaver. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1949. [Tomov, 1991] K.Tomov. The Resomal-Isomorphic Principle. Arges, Sofia, 1991. 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