Josh Bacigalupi here, fellow pirate. Thank you all for this thoughtful discussion.
Work is a fundamental focus of Terry's project. We can all agree that the creation of entropy is necessary to do work; such degradation of a gradient is a necessary precondition of work potential, but not just any work. The specific kind of work that some self-entailed proto-cell does in its environment must be such that it increases the chances that such nascent agency will have increased the chances of its own propagation in that open system. Terry calls this teleodynamic work. But this isn't even the most stringent requirement we place on ourselves. Not only must this work be relevant to its own persistence, *the constraints necessary to enact this specific dynamic must be able to persist for some finite time in the absence of any gradient what-so-ever.* In other words, Terry's hypothesized "autogen" is specifically conceived to retain the capacity to do self-efficacious work even after local chemical equalibrium has been attained. Once a gradient is again available, any viable autogen must be able to restart the very specific co-constraints of auto-catalysis and self-organized containment, a process that we suggest must be able to both self-repair and create new sets of co-constraint in wholly novel substrates. This, in effect, spans the ontological gap from the vast majority of physico-chemical dynamics to the first distinct dynamic of a measurable medium of informational significance, whose benchmark of significance is the persistence of autogenic constraints. Although intriguing, we are skeptical when speculating about vastly more complex and likely intentional agents, like bacterium, or clearly intentional agents, like humans. We suggest that focus on a priori intentional agency skips the distinct logical step from ubiquitous self-organizing dynamics, where rate of entropy production is increased (dissipating not only the external gradient but the internal organization itself), to the relatively rare "teleodynamics", where rate of entropy and work production are mitigated by the autogen's normative relation to its surroundings. Cheers, Josh On Sun, Jan 18, 2015 at 8:51 PM, Terrence W. DEACON <dea...@berkeley.edu> wrote: > Hi Joseph, > > Glad to have you join in. My goal is (paraphrasing Einstein) to > develop a model system that is as simple as possible but not too > simple to provide a foundation for formalizing the concepts of > reference and significance. If too simple, it would be helpful to know > what is specifically missing. > > In considering more complex model systems the critical constraint is > to avoid cryptically assuming a homuncular perspective that sneaks in > some undescribed mentality (often an external observational > perspective) to do the interpretive work and to define what > constitutes reference and significance. I am unwilling to use a > bacterium as my model, because we implicitly assume their end-directed > and sensing capacities without explaining them. Nor am I willing to > assume that nucleic acids are intrinsically informational or that > information is just pattern replication, as has become a common > assumption in many evolutionary theories. > > As I have said a number of times, my goal is not to deal with all > aspects of the information concept, and certainly not at the level of > human thought. I merely propose to dissolve the implicit dualism in > our current concepts at the most basic level, so that for example it > will be possible to develop a scientifically grounded theory of > molecular biosemiotics. > > As to the point that we need to consider quantum effects, I worry that > it also allows another black box to stand in for an explanation. > Quantum effects are definitely real, and though well described, their > interpretation is even less approachable than the concepts of > reference and significance in information. I worry that we risk trying > to explain one mystery by invoking an even greater mystery. I suspect > that there are aspects of quantum theory that are problematic > precisely because we lack a clear understanding of the referential > aspect of information. So the reanalysis of information that I am > suggesting may actually contribute to a better understanding of the > information provided by quantum experiments, rather than the other way > around. The key link is to the concept of physical work (which I argue > is essential for defining reference and significance). In this > submicroscopic domain where the concept of physical work requires a > different framing (though what this is is not obvious), the very > nature of reference must also be reframed. This is an implication of > this analysis that I would love to see developed. > > — Terry > > On 1/18/15, joe.bren...@bluewin.ch <joe.bren...@bluewin.ch> wrote: > > Dear Pedro, Terry, Bob L., Bob U., Loet, Gordana and All, > > I have been in transit from Switzerland to California and only now have a > > moment to even start to comment on what has become for me one of the most > > interesting and useful exchanges on the list. > > I would like to try to summarize my position as follows: I agree with > > Terry's mechanism and I disagree with his model. As others have said much > > better than I, Terry has made a major contribution to information science > > (and philosophy) with his description of orthodynamic, morphodynamic and > > teleodynamic processes. It can and should form the basis of all claims > that > > informational processes can have reference and display significance. > > On the other hand, for reasons that I cannot completely express, the > > autogenic model system does not, as they say here in the U.S. "work" for > me. > > It is stated to be simple, the simplest model, and the possibility exists > > that it is too simple. We are by now all in agreement about the > shortcomings > > of autopoesis. But in a similar vein, in my paper in Information on > Terry's > > book, Incomplete Nature, I suggested that the discussion of 'information > as > > absence', a profound concept introduced by Terry, needed to be > supplemented > > by maintenance, in part, of 'information as presence'. Reciprocal > > autocatalysis, also, is by no means a concept that does not still retain > > many assumptions, for example, how is reciprocity achieved, what are its > > implications and what is the meaning of 'auto'. Essential aspects of the > > evolutionary dynamics of information may be inexpressible in the current > > autogenic model due to what appear to me to be a lack of sufficiently > deep > > roots in quantum mechanics. > > I thus see a very valuable ontological (pace Jeremy) critique of Terry's > > work in progress from at least five or six perspectives, including my > own. > > Thank you and best wishes for 2015, > > Joseph > > ----Message d'origine---- > > De : dea...@berkeley.edu > > Date : 18/01/2015 - 13:22 (PST) > > À : gordana.dodig-crnko...@mdh.se > > Cc : firstname.lastname@example.org > > Objet : Re: [Fis] THE NEW YEAR ESSAY AND FOUR GREAT SCIENTIFIC DOMAINS > Fis > > Digest, Vol 10, Issue 11 > > Typo in line 7 (correction) > > experimentally determine whether or not it "works" as proposed. > > On Sun, Jan 18, 2015 at 1:20 PM, Terrence W. DEACON <dea...@berkeley.edu > > > > wrote: > > Gordana's response provides a wonderful opening for digging into some of > the > > most challenging and subtle issues lurking behind this essay. > > For now I will respond to the comparison between autopoiesis and > autogenesis > > and what can and cannot be learned from each. In many ways this > comparison > > is at the center of the conceptual challenge I offer. > > First, autopoiesis is a philosophical concept. Though various model > systems > > have been proposed that purport to embody its logic, it is not an > > empirically testable hypothesis that would allow one to experimentally > > determine whether or n to it "works" as proposed. > > Here is the definition that Maturana and Varela provided in 1980: > > [an autopoietic system as one that] "constitutes itself ... as a concrete > > unity ... by specifying the topological domain of its realization ..." > "So > > an “autopoietic machine” is one that collectively produces its material > > components as well as the network of relations between them that > constitutes > > their unity in a discrete physical location." > > These latter properties are not attributed to any separate and > distinctive > > mechanism over and above the closed co-production of components and yet > are > > essential defining attributes. Indeed, this organization is described as > the > > "fundamental variable which it maintains constant" (p. 79). > > In simple terms, autopoiesis is a highly abstract account of what must > be > > the case for something to be a living organism. In this respect I > consider > > it to be an updated restatement of Kant's concept of the > self-organization > > that constitutes an organism, with the added stipulation that it also > > somehow [how?] determines systemic unity and coherence. > > Here is Kant in 1790: > > “An organized being is then not a mere machine, for that has merely > motive > > power, but it possesses in itself formative power of a self-propagating > kind > > which it communicates to its materials though they have it not of > > themselves.” (p. 558) and “... every part ... is there for the sake of > the > > other (reciprocally as end, and at the same time, means).” (p. 557) > > Kant concludes that this isn't sufficient to determine intrinsic > teleology > > (and by implication insufficient to determine that the concepts of > function > > and adaptation, much less information). And that these are not intrinsic > > attributes of organisms. I believe that that he is right to concludes > that > > these attributes alone only provide justification for assuming that > > teleological attribute are descriptive glosses, not intrinsic to > > organisms—assigned from a sort of extrinsic transcendental perspective. > > In a striking parallel, the evolutionary biologist J. B. S. Haldane gave > the > > following definition of life in 1929: “A simple organism must consist of > > parts A, B, C, D, and so on, each of which can multiply only in the > presence > > of all, or almost all, of the others.” (p. 245) > > The fundamental problem is that the autopoiesis description requires—but > > does not provide—an explanation for how organizational unity is generated > > and maintained. Like Kant and Haldan M & V merely assume the presence of > > some means of maintaining this co-productive unity of interdependent > > components. And yet, it is individuation of a self (a beneficiary) that > > "acts on its own behalf" (to quote Stu Kauffman's definition of > autonomous > > agency) that is the critical feature that enables us to locate intrinsic > > teleological organization. > > I argue that autogenesis is, in contrast, is an empirically testable > model > > system, whose attributes can be verified or falsified. That among these > > attributes are those that constitute autonomous agency, self-repair, > > reproduction, and even evolvability in a limited sense. And finally, that > > this is what allows us to precisely identify the intrinsic presence of an > > interpretive dynamic for which reference and significance (i.e. the > > assignment of value) to a discrete physical individuated system. Not > > surprisingly, M & V argue that autopoiesis is a separate phenomenon from > > reproductive, evolutionary, and representational processes (and they deny > > the reality of representation, which is a central attribute being > explained > > in my proposal). > > Where we are in agreement, however, is that the dynamic that constitutes > > living should also be the dynamic that constitutes mentality. But given > the > > differences listed above and described in my essay, to confuse these two > > concepts is to miss the very essence of my argument. Moreover, as I > > indicated at the conclusion of my essay, the analysis of reference and > > significance that can be formalized using this approach still is a long > ways > > from an account of the phenomenology of human subjective experience. In > > Incomplete Nature I argue that mental experience is at least a second > order > > variant of the dynamics that characterizes autogenesis. > > So although some have claimed that autogenesis provides an empirically > > realizable exemplar of a process that could be characterized as > autopoietic, > > I think that this misses the crucial point. Autopoiesis theory fails to > even > > describe what is most essential: the nature of the dynamic that generates > > the coherent individuation of an autonomous agent. Not surprisingly, it > has > > nothing constructive to say about information theory and how it might be > > possible to formalize a theory of reference and significance. Indeed, as > M & > > V claim, these don't really exist as physical phenomena but are rather > > givens in some sort of solipsistic embodied idealism. > > As for studying the problem at many levels from bacterial communication > to > > social organization, it should be clear that I believe that the > conceptual > > challenge demands that we work at many levels of information science (in > the > > broad sense) at once, recognizing that the ultimate goal is to get beyond > > our current methodological dualism. As I noted, my goal in this essay is > > only to work at the very bottom of the problem in recognition of the fact > > that without this most basic foundation the larger goals will remain out > of > > reach. > > It is the possibility of legitimizing reference and significance as > > scientific concepts with solid empirical foundation that makes it > reasonable > > to imagine such a larger vision, as Pedro has intimated. I believe that > > succeeding at this lowest level project could provide a new perspective > for > > understanding subjective and social phenomena, and possibly even help to > > identify and implement a novel approach to "computing." > > — Terry > > On Sun, Jan 18, 2015 at 12:34 AM, Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic > > <gordana.dodig-crnko...@mdh.se> wrote: > > Dear colleagues, > > Even though I agree with all Jeremy writes in his new post, I would still > > return back to the opposite side (where Pedro’s previous post left us) > and > > try to think about the big picture. > > I am sure there will be many FISers who will take the challenge of > > discussing the details of construction of an autogen as a bridge between > > meaning and mechanism. > > In his first post, Jeremy wrote: > > “Terry and the Pirates have a long standing rule: One cannot employ as > > explanation that which hasn't yet been explained. Failing to hold this > > standard opens researchers up to merely taxonomical work, positing > forces, > > properties > > and capacities defined solely by their consequences, in effect mistaking > > questions as answers. Hence, our focus on exploring reference at its > > earliest possible emergence, and explaining exactly how that emergence > > occurs, since emergence is also a question, > > not an answer, an explanandum not an explanans.” > > “We Pirates do what we can to stay on the epistemological methodist side > of > > things.” > > Epistemological methodism is explained as the opposite of epistemological > > particularism, which is the belief that one can know something without > > knowing how one knows that thing. So according to epistemological > > Methodists, > > for me to know implies not only that I know that I know but even that I > > know > > how I know. It is a very strong assumption. > > It seems to me to exclude constructive approaches to knowledge > generation. > > When we construct, we simply use elements that suit the purpose of > > construction. There is no very hard requirement to understand bricks. > How do > > we > > conceptualize knowledge and knowing? What does it mean “to know” and “to > > know that we know”? How detailed, precise and formal knowledge should be > for > > me to claim “I know”? > > For example I can say: we know that the universe consists of > matter/energy > > in space/time. But how much indeed do we know about it? Only a small > > fraction (<5%?) of the content of the universe seems to be made of > > matter/energy > > while the majority of the universe is made of dark matter/dark energy > and > > at the moment we do not know what they are. This sounds like a very > > pessimistic view of our present knowledge. However I strongly believe > that > > this state must be temporary and that a > > new break-through will come soon. It may happen in the similar way as in > > the time of Planck, who solved the problem of the ultraviolet > catastrophe, > > (a prediction of late 19th century/early 20th century classical physics > that > > an ideal black body at thermal > > equilibrium will emit radiation with infinite power). Some assumptions > > (something that we believe we know and we probably even believe that we > know > > why we know) are simply wrong. > > Knowledge is a dynamic, nonlinear, adaptive, learning system. > > That is why the suggestion to study information not only on the level of > > physics and chemistry in a well-defined simplified system, but on many > > different levels of abstraction is relevant. Some people (Alexej Kurakin > > for > > example, (Kurakin, 2011)) see fractal structures that govern generation > of > > information, from atoms to human societies, and one can learn about the > > properties of one level from the observed patterns on some other levels. > > The > > reason to look at the fuzzy “big picture” at the same time as we > construct > > much more coherent, crispy and convincing detailed aspects of it is that > > they are inseparably connected. The role of unexplained pieces in the > > theoretical framework is as placeholders. > > Like in lazy evaluation, we do not do anything about it until we learn > more > > at some point. > > (In programming language theory, lazy evaluation, or call-by-need is > an > > evaluation strategy which delays the evaluation of an expression until > its > > value is needed (non-strict evaluation) and which also avoids repeated > > evaluations (sharing). The sharing can reduce the running time of > > certain functions by an exponential factor over other non-strict > evaluation > > strategies, such as call-by-name. > > http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lazy_evaluation) > > This is not meant as a critique of Terry’s approach, which is fascinating > > elegant, and refreshing among many fuzzy discussions about the nature of > > reference and significance. However, connections and integration with > other > > levels and perspectives on information might be instructive and > worthwhile, > > especially from Terry who has done so much research on higher levels. > Such > > as e.g. in Harrington et al. (2001). “Science, culture, meaning, values: > a > > dialogue” Annals of the New York > > Academy of Sciences. and of course even more in Deacon T. (2012) the > > Incomplete Nature: How Mind Emerged from Matter. Norton & Company > > What might be interesting on the synthetic side (as the opposite side of > the > > analytic one as presented in the New Year’s Essay) would be integration > of > > levels that Terry has in the Incomplete Nature, based on the dynamics > > of information, where information has different meaning on different > levels > > of abstraction/organisation. In the similar way as an autogen, as a > > self-organizing unit that preserves itself > > dynamically and grows via a combination of autocatalysis and > self-assembly, > > our knowledge grows dynamically and the meaning of pieces changes > > accordingly. In other words, it is not only self-organizing but also > > self-generating. Different scientific domains > > support and regulate each other; different “domain-specific” (or > > “science-specific”) models can help better construction or generation of > > knowledge of the whole as well as of the details. Specifically, it might > be > > useful to connect to computing (as information > > dynamics), as Pedro suggests. > > Computing (Rosenbloom, “The Fourth Great Scientific Domain”) seen as > > information dynamics, goes together with the physical, the biological, > and > > the social. The project of naturalization proceeds by connecting all four > > domains. > > (Dodig-Crnkovic, 2014) The attractiveness of the project as Terry’s (as > > presented in the Incomplete Nature) is in its contribution to the > > naturalization of reference and significance – concepts that still are > > highly mystified in the eyes of many. > > At the end, I have two questions. > > First the particular one. I would like to know what exactly is the > > difference between autogenesis and autopoiesis? It seems to me that > > autogenesis as it looks like from Terry’s Opening Essay is a step before > the > > whole system > > can be integrated and said to be alive. On the other hand autopoiesis is > > the process of life of an organism such as cell with all properties of a > > living organism. Autogen seems to me as a chemical automaton while > > autopoetic system is alive. The theory > > of autopoiesis is descriptive and qualitative. It does not make the > > insights made by Maturana and Varela less important. Understanding > > autopoiesis as cognition makes a vital connection between mind and > matter. > > Like Pedro, I also believe that study of the behavior of prokaryotic > cells > > such as bacteria is useful as it can reveal a lot about information > > processing as social cognition (Ben-Jacob, > > Becker, & Shapira, 2004; Ben-Jacob, Shapira, & Tauber, 2006, 2011; > > Ben-Jacob, 2008, 2009a, 2009b) (Ng & Bassler, 2009; Waters & Bassler, > 2005). > > > > There is a lot we don't know about such complex systems as bacteria but > we > > can learn relevant things even if we apply “lazy evaluation” strategy for > > many parts in the model. In other words, it should be possible and > > reasonable > > to build knowledge even though we do not know (enough) about parts we > build > > from and their mutual interactions. > > My second question, the general one, goes back to Pedro’s post: how the > New > > Year’s Essay connects to the big picture with four great scientific > > domains? > > With best regards, > > Gordana > > References > > Ben-Jacob, E. (2008). Social behavior of bacteria: from physics to > complex > > organization. The European Physical Journal B, 65(3), 315–322. > > Ben-Jacob, E. (2009a). Bacterial Complexity: More Is Different on All > > Levels. In S. Nakanishi, R. Kageyama, & D. Watanabe (Eds.), Systems > Biology- > > The Challenge of Complexity (pp. 25–35). Tokyo Berlin Heidelberg New > York: > > Springer. > > Ben-Jacob, E. (2009b). Learning from Bacteria about Natural Information > > Processing. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1178, 78–90. > > Ben-Jacob, E., Becker, I., & Shapira, Y. (2004). Bacteria Linguistic > > Communication and Social Intelligence. Trends in Microbiology, 12(8), > > 366–372. > > Ben-Jacob, E., Shapira, Y., & Tauber, A. I. (2006). Seeking the > Foundations > > of Cognition in Bacteria. Physica A, 359, 495–524. > > Ben-Jacob, E., Shapira, Y., & Tauber, A. I. (2011). Smart Bacteria. In L. > > Margulis, C. A. Asikainen, & W. E. Krumbein (Eds.), Chimera and > > Consciousness. Evolution of the Sensory Self. Cambridge Boston: MIT > Press. > > Dodig-Crnkovic, G. (2014). Modeling Life as Cognitive Info-Computation. > In > > A. Beckmann, E. Csuhaj-Varjú, & K. Meer (Eds.), Computability in Europe > > 2014. LNCS (pp. 153–162). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer. > > Kurakin, A. (2011). The self-organizing fractal theory as a universal > > discovery method: the phenomenon of life. Theoretical Biology and Medical > > Modelling, 8(4). Retrieved from http://www.tbiomed.com/content/8/1/4 > > Ng, W.-L., & Bassler, B. L. (2009). Bacterial quorum-sensing network > > architectures. Annual Review of Genetics, 43, 197–222. > > Waters, C. M., & Bassler, B. L. (2005). Quorum Sensing: Cell-to-Cell > > Communication in Bacteria. Annual Review of Cell and Developmental > Biology, > > 21, 319–346. > > http://www.ait.gu.se/kontaktaoss/personal/gordana-dodig-crnkovic > > http://www.mrtc.mdh.se/~gdc/ > > From: Jeremy Sherman <mindreadersdiction...@gmail.com> > > Date: Sunday 18 January 2015 03:41 > > To: fis <email@example.com> > > Subject: Re: [Fis] Fis Digest, Vol 10, Issue 11 > > It would be satisfying perhaps to think of our collective work as at the > > forefront of the development of what will become A Grand Domain of > Science, > > but I would say the better trend in current science is toward careful > > integration between domains rather than toward established grand > divisions, > > which seems a more a classical approach. Doesn't information play out in > the > > biological and the social domains? Isn't our most ambitious goal here to > > explain scientifically the relationship > > between information and the physical domain? > > Whether modest or foolhardy as Terry suggests or of some other stature, > > Terry's approach addresses the source of the great schism in all academic > > and intellectual circles: Physical scientists are appropriately barred > from > > explaining > > behavior in terms of the value of information for some end-directed self > > about, or representative of anything. But biological and social > scientists > > can't help but explain behavior in those terms. Focusing, precisely on > > possible transitions from the physical > > domain to the living and social domains is exactly what a scientific > > approach demands. > > Lacking an explanation for the transition from mechanism to end-directed > > behavior (which is inescapably teleological down to its roots in > function or > > adaptation--behaviors of value to a self about its environment), science > is > > stuck, > > siloed into isolated domains without a rationale. > > To my mind, this makes the implications of meticulous work at the very > > border between mechanism and end-directed behavior anything but modest in > > its possible implications. In this I agree with Pedro. With what we now > know > > about self-organization-- > > how it is footing on the physical side for a bridge from mechanism to > > end-directed behavior but does not itself provide the bridge, we are > > perfectly poised to build the bridge itself, through an integrated > science > > that explains the ontology of epistemology, > > providing solid scientific ground over the absolutely huge gaping hole > in > > the middle of the broadest reaches of scientific and philosophical > > endeavor. > > Whether Terry's work or someone else's work bridges that gap, I predict > > that, at long last, the gap can and will be finally filled, probably > within > > the next decade. As ambitious researchers this would be a lousy time for > any > > of us, > > Terry included, to stick to our guns in the face of substantial critique > > revealing how a theory we embrace merely provides a new, more clever way > way > > to hide or smear over the gap pretending it isn't there, which is why I > > would love to see this discussion > > refocus on the article's detailed content. Though the implications of > this > > research at the borderline may be grand, the research, in the doing, is > as > > Terry implies as modest any careful scientific work. > > Jeremy Sherman > > On Sat, Jan 17, 2015 at 5:06 AM, Moisés André Nisenbaum > > <moises.nisenb...@ifrj.edu.br> wrote: > > Hi, Pedro. > > I didnt receive th image (Figure 1. The Four Great Domains of Science) > > Would you please send it again? > > Thank you. > > Moises > > 2015-01-17 9:00 GMT-02:00 <fis-requ...@listas.unizar.es>: > > Send Fis mailing list submissions to > > firstname.lastname@example.org > > To subscribe or unsubscribe via the World Wide Web, visit > > > > http://listas.unizar.es/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/fis > > or, via email, send a message with subject or body 'help' to > > fis-requ...@listas.unizar.es > > You can reach the person managing the list at > > fis-ow...@listas.unizar.es > > When replying, please edit your Subject line so it is more specific > > than "Re: Contents of Fis digest..." > > Today's Topics: > > 1. Re: Beginnings and ends---Steps to a theory of reference & > > significance (Pedro C. Marijuan) > > ---------- Mensagem encaminhada ---------- > > From: "Pedro C. Marijuan" <pcmarijuan.i...@aragon.es> > > To: "'fis'" <email@example.com> > > Cc: > > Date: Fri, 16 Jan 2015 12:43:40 +0100 > > Subject: Re: [Fis] Beginnings and ends---Steps to a theory of reference & > > significance > > Dear Terry and FIS colleagues---and pirates, > > Just a brief reflection on the below. > > (From Terry's last message)... > > So my goal in this case is quite modest, and yet perhaps also a bit > > foolhardy. I want to suggest a simplest possible model system to use > > as the basis for formalizing the link between physical processes and > > semiotic processes. Perhaps someday after considerably elaborating > > this analysis it could contribute to issues of the psychology of human > > interactions. I hope to recruit some interest into pursuing this goal. > > In my view, any research endeavor is also accompanied by some "ultimate" > > goals or ends that go beyond the quite explicit disciplinary ones. In > this > > case, say, about the destiny of the constructs that would surround the > > information concept (or the possibility > > of framing an informational perspective, or a renewed information > science, > > or whatever), wouldn't it be interesting discussing in extenso what could > > that ultimate vision? > > I mean, most of us may agree in quite many points related to the > > microphysical (& thermodynamic) underpinning of information, as it > > transpires in the exchanges we are having--but where do we want to arrive > > finally with the construction activity? > > I tend to disagree with localist aims, even though at the time being they > > may look more prudent and parsimonious. Putting it in brief, too > briefly!, > > and borrowing from Rosenbloom (P.S. 2013. On Computing: The Fourth Great > > Scientific Domain) the idea is that information science, properly > developed > > and linked with computer science and mathematics, should constitute one > of > > the Great Domains of contemporary > > science. The informational would go together with the physical, the > > biological, and the social: constituting the four great domains of > science. > > See Figure below. Rather than attempting the construction of another > average > > or standard discipline, information > > science is about the making out of one of the “great scientific > domains” of > > contemporary knowledge. > > More cogent arguments could be elaborated on how to cover sceintifically > the > > whole "information world" (human societies, behaving individuals, brain > > organization, cellular processes, biomolecules) and the problem of > > interlocking--crisscrossing a myriad of information > > flows at all levels. But the point is, "ends", although unassailable, > may > > be as much important as "beginnings". > > Thanks in advance for the patience! > > ---Pedro > > > > Figure 1. The Four Great Domains of Science. > > The graphic shows the network of contemporary disciplines in the > > background; > > while the superimposed “four-leaf clover” represents the four great > > scientific domains. > > -- > > ------------------------------------------------- > > Pedro C. Marijuán > > Grupo de Bioinformación / Bioinformation Group > > Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud > > Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Aragón (CIBA) > > Avda. San Juan Bosco, 13, planta X > > 50009 Zaragoza, Spain > > Tfno. +34 976 71 3526 (& 6818) > > firstname.lastname@example.org://sites.google.com/site/pedrocmarijuan/ > > ------------------------------------------------- > > _______________________________________________ > > Fis mailing list > > Fis@listas.unizar.es > > http://listas.unizar.es/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/fis > > -- > > Moisés André Nisenbaum > > Doutorando IBICT/UFRJ. Professor. Msc. > > Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro - IFRJ > > Campus Maracanã > > moises.nisenb...@ifrj.edu.br > > _______________________________________________ > > Fis mailing list > > Fis@listas.unizar.es > > http://listas.unizar.es/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/fis > > -- > > Professor Terrence W. Deacon > > University of California, Berkeley > > -- > > Professor Terrence W. Deacon > > University of California, Berkeley > > > > > -- > Professor Terrence W. Deacon > University of California, Berkeley > > _______________________________________________ > Fis mailing list > Fis@listas.unizar.es > http://listas.unizar.es/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/fis >
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