It is amazing to see Figure 6 (Prototypical signaling pathways of
multicellularity) and imagine the academic path that led to this product.
It is (no doubt) a result of interdisciplinary work between engineering,
Biology and Information Science.

Pedro can you send the reference of this image?

Kind regards

2016-04-28 9:49 GMT-03:00 Pedro C. Marijuan <>:

> Dear Alex and colleagues,
> Thanks for the opportunity to ad a few lines on signaling matters. I would
> not discard any organizational aspect of signaling pathways. I have put
> below a diagram that approaches the dynamics of some major ones.Your
> analogy with mobile phones would be right, provided that conversations were
> mixed, that a number of receivers were just random, and that a component of
> "experience information" would be entered too --I think it can apply to the
> dynamics of second messengers, where multitudes of microevents and pathways
> may be integrated via lots of feedbacks (See the box in the figure below).
> Symmetry is a big word concerning the organization of pathways in the
> construction of multicellular development... opposed paths, tipping points,
> collective (populational) symmetry breakings, massive feedbacks, etc.
> By the way, when we commented days ago on Tononi's phi, both from John
> Collier and myself, the idea was to consider it as applied to the closure
> of meaning episodes in language. How "getting" the meaning of some
> linguistic episode (eg, a joke) provokes a sudden change of transient
> connectivity between areas...
> Apart from meaning, it may also be interesting that there seems to be a
> strong asymmetry in between the incoming / outgoing information flows--the
> "social info loops" around. In most human organizations, the ratio is in
> between 3 and 4. It means that you and me are ordered by upper levels in
> around 80 % of our exchanges, while what we send upwards becomes a meager
> 20 %. It is from a statistics on business communication metrics. The
> generalization is far from direct, but maybe it would occur in the cells
> too--amazingly there is very little literature on cellular "signal
> emission".
> Anyhow, how the whole ascending and descending info flows give raise to
> all the varieties of organizational complexity is a fascinating problem,
> All the  best--Pedro
> *Figure 6: Prototypical signaling pathways of multicellularity.* From
> left to right, a stimulus in the intercellular space binds to a
> transmembrane receptor (sensor) on its extracellular domain. Upon binding,
> the receptor undergoes a transient modification of its cytoplasmic domain;
> this effect triggers a transient modification of a series of proteins in
> the cell, each one acting as an intermediate in the signal transduction
> pathway (signal processing), with characteristic hierarchies of protein
> kinases and second messengers. The last components are actuators or
> effectors that activate or inhibit proteins and channels that control
> several cellular functions, notably gene expression by means of
> transcriptional switches that may interact with several coactivator
> partners. The whole biochemical changes produced in the cell represent the
> response to the received signal —its *molecular meaning*.
>  El 26/04/2016 a las 10:10, Alex Hankey escribió:
> Dear Pedro,
> Thank you for the comments on my presentation, and particularly for
> reminding us all that life transmits information of many different kinds by
> very specific and selective processes in chemical signally molecules.
> I must confess that I had assumed that such kinds of signals could be
> considered special cases of digital information analogous to the codes
> transmitted by a digital signalling tower in a mobile telephone network,
> where the initial code has to name the device that the rest of that message
> section is meant to receive.
> In mobile phone systems, individual devices are sent information by
> identifiers. If we have a nervous system working with several
> neurotransmitters, or a cell signalling system working with a number of
> cytokines, each with a specific regulatory influence / purpose, are these
> individual items not performing in ways that are covered by the usual
> combination of Wiener and Shannon, and therefore in principle understood,
> and AS YOU SPECIFICALLY POINT OUT, with no particular "experience"
> component.
> I wonder whether the material I transmitted made the following point
> succinctly / precisely enough:
> David Chalmers specifically hypothesized that 'experience information' (my
> terminology) mst have a double aspect, and that the 'loop' arising from
> criticality specifically fulfils his hypothesis in a new and potent way.
> (The material contains so many points that this, to my mind, really
> significant one may have got buried.)
> Thank you also for appreciating the amplification of Tononi's contribution
> (Tononi, I personally regard as of real significance). The internal loop
> creates
> the internal coherence that is required to form the 'integrated
> information'.
> I have a suspicion that the following propositions are probably correct:
> a. any information structure that is truly 'non-reductive'
> (Chalmers requirement 3) must possess long range coherence.
> b. any information structure with long-range coherence will be a form of
> integrated information.
> c. Hence Chalmers requirement 3 in fact specifies integrative information.
> This sequence a, b, c simplifies what those writing in the 1990's were
> saying:
> they were in fact setting equivalent requirements on the form of
> 'experience information'
> (though Tononi undoubtedly thought he was saying something different, as
> did those who followed up on his work, and Chalmers did not realize that
> Tononi's proposal was equivaent to the point that he had proposed.
> Anyone's thoughts on this would be very much appreciated,
> All best wishes,
> Alex
> --
> -------------------------------------------------
> Pedro C. Marijuán
> Grupo de Bioinformación / Bioinformation Group
> Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud
> Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Aragón (CIBA)
> Avda. San Juan Bosco, 13, planta X
> 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
> Tfno. +34 976 71 3526 (& 
> 6818)pcmarijuan.iacs@aragon.es
> -------------------------------------------------
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Moisés André Nisenbaum
Doutorando IBICT/UFRJ. Professor. Msc.
Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro - IFRJ
Campus Rio de Janeiro
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