Resent to FIS correct address

De : Christophe Menant
Envoyé : jeudi 19 octobre 2017 11:15
À : is
Cc : Krassimir Markov
Objet : RE: [Fis] What is “Agent”?

Dear FIS colleagues,

Looking at defining agency is an interesting subject, somehow close to 
information and meaning. Thank you Krassimir for bringing it up.
Let me propose here an approach based on what we can call ‘agents’ in our 
everyday life. This can highlight characteristics possibly leading to a 
definition.for agents.
Based on laymen’s understanding of the world most of us would agree about items 
that can be considered as agents and items that cannot.
Obviously, animals, humans and plants are agents (Natural Agents).
Also, robots and most of our programmable builds up are agents (Artificial 
But stones, puddles, smokes (inert items) are not generally considered as 
agents (‘non-agents’).
In terms of characteristics it is pretty obvious that both agents and 
non-agents obey physico-chemical laws that exist everywhere.
But in contrast it is worth noticing that agents are local entities submitted 
to internal constraints.
Natural Agents are submitted to ‘intrinsic constraints’ like ‘stay alive’ 
(individual & species) and ‘live group life’, with other specific constraints 
for humans.
AAs are different as they have to satisfy ‘derived constraints’ coming from 
their designer.
All these internal constraints are satisfied by actions implemented by the 
agents. These actions can be physical, biological or mental and take place in 
or out the agent.
Inert items (non-agents) are not submitted to internal constraints and do not 
act for constraint satisfaction.
Such characterization of agents as different from non-agents brings us to the 
Agents are local entities.
Agents are submitted to internal constraints.
Agents are capable of action for constraint satisfaction.
This leads to a possible definition for an agent as being ‘an identifiable 
entity submitted to internal constraints and capable of actions for the 
satisfaction of the constraints’ (a more detailed presentation of that 
definition is available at

Such definition of an agent focused on action for internal constraint 
satisfaction positions meaning generation at the core of agency (a meaning is 
generated as being the connection between received information and an internal 
And such relations between agency and meaning allow to look at some AI concerns 
in quite simple terms. Characterizing agents and meanings by intrinsic or 
derived constraints leads to positions on the Turing Test, on the Chinese Room 
Argument and on the Symbol Grounding Problem (short paper on subject at


De : Fis <> de la part de Krassimir Markov 
Envoyé : dimanche 15 octobre 2017 23:27
À : Foundation of Information Science
Objet : [Fis] What is “Agent”?

Dear FIS Colleagues,

After nice collaboration last weeks, a paper Called “Data versus
Information” is prepared in very beginning draft variant and already is
sent to authors for refining.
Many thanks for fruitful work!

What we have till now is the understanding that the information is some
more than data.
In other words:
     d = r
     i = r + e
     d => data;
     i => information;
     r => reflection;
     e => something Else, internal for the Agent (subject, interpreter,

Simple question: What is “Agent”?

When an entity became an Agent? What is important to qualify the entity as
Agent or as an Intelligent Agent? What kind of agent is the cell? At the
end - does information exist for Agents or only for Intelligent Agents?

Thesis: Information exists only for the Intelligent Agents.

Antithesis: Information exists at all levels of Agents.

Friendly greetings

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