Dear Krassimir and colleagues,

Our mental model can entertain discursive models reflexively. Thus, our models are (at least partly) discursively mediated and hence the result of communication. The development of discursive knowledge is thus liberated from biologically given constraints; it has a dynamic of its own. This is the source of progress in a knowledge-based economy. The models are evolving, whereas we are essentially the same.

When Julius Caesar said "veni, vidi, vici" he entertained a mental model, but he could not understand gravity. The history of mankind is driven from the next-order level and not by its genesis.


Loet Leydesdorff

Professor emeritus, University of Amsterdam
Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR) <>; Associate Faculty, SPRU, <>University of Sussex;

Guest Professor Zhejiang Univ. <>, Hangzhou; Visiting Professor, ISTIC, <>Beijing;

Visiting Fellow, Birkbeck <>, University of London;

------ Original Message ------
From: "Krassimir Markov" <>
To: "FIS" <>
Sent: 3/11/2018 11:34:12 PM
Subject: [Fis] Welcome to Knowledge Market and the FIS Sci-coins

Dear Colleagues,

This letter contains more than one theme, so it is structured as follow:

- next step in “mental model” explanation;

- about “Knowledge market”, FIS letters’ sequences and FIS Sci-coins.

1. The next step in “mental model” explanation:

Let remember shortly my letter from 05.03.2018.

To avoid misunderstandings with concepts Subject, agent, animal, human, society, humanity, living creatures, etc., in [1] we use the abstract concept “INFOS” to denote every of them as well as all of artificial creatures which has features similar to the former ones.

Infos has possibility to reflect the reality via receptors and to operate with received reflections in its memory. The opposite is possible - via effectors Infos has possibility to realize in reality some of its (self-) reflections from its consciousness.

The commutative diagram on Figure 1 represents modeling relations. In the frame of diagram:

- in reality: real models: s is a model of r,

- in consciousness: mental models: si is a mental model of ri;

- between reality and consciousness: perceiving data and creating mental models: triple (si, ei, ri) is a mental model of triple (s, e, r).

It is easy to imagine the case when the Infos realizes its reflections using its effectors, i.e. relation between consciousness and reality: realizing mental models and creating data. In this case the receptors’ arrows should be replaces by opposite effectors’ arrows. In this case triple (s, e, r) is a realization of the mental model (si, ei, ri).

Figure 1

After creating the mental model it may be reflected by other levels of consciousness. In literature several such levels are described. For instance, in [2], six levels are separated for humans (Figure 2). The complexity of Infos determines the levels. For instance, for societies the levels are much more, for animals with no neo-cortex the levels a less.

Figure 2.   [2]

This means that the mental models are on different consciousness levels and different types (for instance - touch, audition, vision).

In [2], Jeff Hawkins had remarked: “The transformation— from fast changing to slow changing and from spatially specific to spatially invariant— is well documented for vision. And although there is a smaller body of evidence to prove it, many neuroscientists believe you'd find the same thing happening in all the sensory areas of your cortex, not just in vision” [2].

As it is shown on Figure 2 mental models are in very large range from spatially specific to spatially invariant; from fast changing to slow changing; from “features” and “details” to objects”.

To be continued...

2.Aabout “Knowledge market”, FIS letters’ sequences and FIS Sci-coins.

The block-chain idea is not new. All forums and mailing lists have the possibility to organize incoming messages in internally connected sequences. The new is the Bit-coin, i.e. the price for including a message in the sequence received after successful solving a difficult task.

What we have in FIS are letters’ sequences already created for many years. What is needed to start using them is to be strictly when we answer to any letter not to change the “Subject” of the letter. The list archive may help us to follow the sequences - only what is needed to ask sorting by [ Subject ] <>. We may sort by [ Thread ] <>[ Subject ] <>[ Author ] <>[ Date ] <>.

This means that the letter corresponds to the block, and the sequence of letters corresponds to the chain.

What about the currency?

In [3] we had introduced the new concept “Knowledge marked”. It is remembered in [4] where the approach for measuring the scientific contributions was proposed. It was proposed to use the “paper” as basic measurement unit. Now I may say, the paper is our “Sci-coin”. This Sci-coin is convertible to real currencies - it is wide accepted the price of a paper to be downloaded as pdf-file is about 30-35 EURO or USD.

Finally, the paper “Data versus Information” [5] is an example of a FIS Sci-coin mined from the letters’ sequences.

As we had seen, it is not so easy to “mine the Sci-coin”!

Friendly greetings



[1] Kr. Markov, Kr. Ivanova, I. Mitov. Basic Structure of the General Information Theory. IJ ITA, Vol.14, No.: 1, 2007. pp. 5-19.

[2] Hawkins, Jeff (2004). On Intelligence (1st ed.). Times Books. p. 272. ISBN <> 0805074562 <>.

[3] K. Markov, K. Ivanova, I. Mitov, N. Ivanova, A. Danilov, K. Boikatchev. Basic Structure of the Knowledge Market. IJ ITA, 2002, V.9, No.4, pp. 123-134.

[4] Kr. Markov, Kr. Ivanova, V. Velychko, “Usefulness of Scientific Contributions”, International Journal “Information Theories and Applications”, Vol.20, Number 1, 2013, ISSN 1310-0513 (printed), ISSN 1313-0463 (online), pp. 4-38.

[5] Krassimir Markov, Christophe Menant, Stanley N Salthe, Yixin Zhong, Karl Javorszky, Alex Hankey, Loet Leydesdorff, Guy A Hoelzer, Jose Javier Blanco Rivero, Robert K. Logan, Sungchul Ji, Mark Johnson, David Kirkland, Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic. Data versus Information. International Journal “Information Theories and Applications”, Vol. 24, Number 4, 2017, ISSN 1310-0513 (printed), ISSN 1313-0463 (online), pp. 303 -321.

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