Dear Mark and Colleagues,

Thank you for the nice remarks!

The concept “INFOS” had been proposed in the end of 1989.
The second part of the General Information Theory (GIT) is just the “Theory of 
The are many interesting ideas about INFOS, some of them you have pointed.
Step by step I shall present them in FIS.

The fundamental triad is the very basic concept of the mathematics – remember 
the formula “y=f(x)”. 
It is the very basic model concept, too. 

Especially about your Theory of named sets (TNS) and my Multi-domain 
information model (MDIM) I want to mention:
- both represent the same idea but from different points of view -  TNS is a 
mathematical theory, MDIM is an information theory (for modeling) of the brain 
- they were invented independently in the same time in the end of seventies of 
last century – the TNS first known (for me) publication is in 1982 in Dushanbe; 
the MDIM (and GIT) first publication was in 1984 in Plovdiv; In 1988, in 
Warsaw, prof. Viktor Policarpovich Gladun had pointed on the similarity and the 
correspondence between TNS and MDIM;
-TNS had been proved by the great number of the MDIM practical realizations;
- now the Resource Definition Framework (RDF) of W3C  is a world accepted 
paradigm for representing Big Data. RDF is based just on triples! MDIM covers 
all possibilities of RDF and respectively – of TNS.

During the years, the GIT had been developed on the fundament of MDIM and on 
the experiments with its practical realizations.  

Friendly greetings

From: Burgin, Mark 
Sent: Thursday, March 22, 2018 12:42 AM
Subject: Re: [Fis] Welcome to Knowledge Market and the FIS Sci-coins

Dear Krassimir and other FISers,

After reading the interesting contribution of Krassimir, I would like to share 
with you some of my impressions and ideas.

I like very much the term INFOS suggested by Krassimir. It’s possible to 
suggest that Krassimir assumed the following definition.
An INFOS is a system functioning (behavior) of which is regulated by 
This definition implies that each INFOS has an information processor. 
Then it is possible to distinguish different categories and types of INFOS. For 
     INFOS only with acceptors/receptors
     INFOS only with effectors
     INFOS with both acceptors/receptors and effectors
Then it is possible to develop an interesting theory of INFOS. 

At the same time, the difference between reality and consciousness needs 
improvement because what many people mean using the word reality is actually 
only one of the variety of realities, namely, the physical or material reality, 
while consciousness is a part of the mental reality. It is possible to find 
more information about different realities and their interaction in the book 
(Burgin, Structural Reality, 2012). Please, don’t confuse Structural Reality 
with virtual reality.  

One more issue from the interesting contribution of Krassimir, which allows 
further development, is the structure of a model. Namely, the relation (s, e, 
r) between a model s of an entity r forms not simply a triple but a fundamental 
triad, which is also called a named set.

Why this is important? The reason to conceive the structure (s, e, r) as a 
fundamental triad or a named set is that there is an advanced mathematical 
theory of named sets, the most comprehensive exposition of which is in the book 
(Burgin, Theory of Named Sets, 2011), and it is possible to use this 
mathematical theory for studying and using models. For instance, the structure 
from Figure 1 in Krassimir’s letter is a morphism of named sets. Named set 
theory describes many properties of such morphism and categories built of named 
sets and their morphism. The structures from Figure 2 in Krassimir’s letter are 
chains of named sets, which are also studied in named set theory.

To conclude it is necessary to understand that if we want to apply mathematics 
in some area it is necessary to use adequate areas of mathematics. As Roger 
Bacon wrote, All science requires mathematics, but mathematics provides 
different devices that are suited to different input. In this respect, when you 
give good quality grains to a mathematical mill, it outputs good quality flour, 
while if you put the same grains into a mathematical petrol engine, it outputs 

The theory of named sets might be very useful for information studies because 
named sets and their chains allow adequate reflection of information and 
information processes.

On 3/11/2018 3:34 PM, Krassimir Markov wrote:


  Dear Colleagues,

  This letter contains more than one theme, so it is structured as follow:

  - next step in “mental model” explanation;

  - about “Knowledge market”, FIS letters’ sequences and FIS Sci-coins.


  1. The next step in “mental model” explanation:


  Let remember shortly my letter from 05.03.2018.


  To avoid misunderstandings with concepts Subject, agent, animal, human, 
society, humanity, living creatures, etc., in [1] we use the abstract concept 
“INFOS” to denote every of them as well as all of artificial creatures which 
has features similar to the former ones.


  Infos has possibility to reflect the reality via receptors and to operate 
with received reflections in its memory. The opposite is possible - via 
effectors Infos has possibility to realize in reality some of its (self-) 
reflections from its consciousness.


  The commutative diagram on Figure 1 represents modeling relations. In the 
frame of diagram:

  - in reality: real models: s is a model of r, 

  - in consciousness: mental models: si is a mental model of ri;

  - between reality and consciousness: perceiving data and creating mental 
models:  triple (si, ei, ri) is a mental model of triple (s, e, r).


  It is easy to imagine the case when the Infos realizes its reflections using 
its effectors, i.e. relation between consciousness and reality: realizing 
mental models and creating data. In this case the receptors’ arrows should be 
replaces by opposite effectors’ arrows. In this case triple (s, e, r) is a 
realization of the mental model (si, ei, ri).



  Figure 1



  After creating the mental model it may be reflected by other levels of 
consciousness. In literature several such levels are described. For instance, 
in [2], six levels are separated for humans (Figure 2). The complexity of Infos 
determines the levels. For instance, for societies the levels are much more, 
for animals with no neo-cortex the levels a less.



  Figure 2.   [2]


  This means that the mental models are on different consciousness levels and 
different types (for instance - touch, audition, vision).


  In [2], Jeff Hawkins had remarked: “The transformation— from fast changing to 
slow changing and from spatially specific to spatially invariant— is well 
documented for vision. And although there is a smaller body of evidence to 
prove it, many neuroscientists believe you'd find the same thing happening in 
all the sensory areas of your cortex, not just in vision” [2].


  As it is shown on Figure 2 mental models are in very large range from 
spatially specific to spatially invariant; from fast changing to slow changing; 
from “features” and “details” to objects”.

  To be continued...


  2.Aabout “Knowledge market”, FIS letters’ sequences and FIS Sci-coins.


  The block-chain idea is not new. All forums and mailing lists have the 
possibility to organize incoming messages in internally connected sequences. 
The new is the Bit-coin, i.e. the price for including a message in the sequence 
received after successful solving a difficult task.


  What we have in FIS are letters’ sequences already created for many years. 
What is needed to start using them is to be strictly when we answer to any 
letter not to change the “Subject” of the letter. The list archive may help us 
to follow the sequences - only what is needed to ask sorting by [ Subject ]. We 
may sort by [ Thread ] [ Subject ] [ Author ] [ Date ]. 

  This means that the letter corresponds to the block, and the sequence of 
letters corresponds to the chain. 


  What about the currency? 

  In [3] we had introduced the new concept “Knowledge marked”. It is remembered 
in [4] where the approach for measuring the scientific contributions was 
proposed. It was proposed to use the “paper” as basic measurement unit. Now I 
may say, the paper is our “Sci-coin”. This Sci-coin is convertible to real 
currencies - it is wide accepted the price of a paper to be downloaded as 
pdf-file is about 30-35 EURO or USD.


  Finally, the paper “Data versus Information” [5] is an example of a FIS 
Sci-coin mined from the letters’ sequences. 

  As we had seen, it is not so easy to “mine the Sci-coin”!


  Friendly greetings




  [1] Kr. Markov, Kr. Ivanova, I. Mitov. Basic Structure of the General 
Information Theory. IJ ITA, Vol.14, No.: 1, 2007. pp. 5-19.

  [2] Hawkins, Jeff (2004). On Intelligence (1st ed.). Times Books. p. 272. 
ISBN 0805074562.

  [3] K. Markov, K. Ivanova, I. Mitov, N. Ivanova, A. Danilov, K. Boikatchev. 
Basic Structure of the Knowledge Market. IJ ITA, 2002, V.9, No.4, pp. 123-134.

  [4] Kr. Markov, Kr. Ivanova, V. Velychko, “Usefulness of Scientific 
Contributions”, International Journal “Information Theories and Applications”, 
Vol.20, Number 1, 2013, ISSN 1310-0513 (printed), ISSN 1313-0463 (online), pp. 

  [5] Krassimir Markov, Christophe Menant, Stanley N Salthe, Yixin Zhong, Karl 
Javorszky, Alex Hankey, Loet Leydesdorff, Guy A Hoelzer, Jose Javier Blanco 
Rivero, Robert K. Logan, Sungchul Ji, Mark Johnson, David Kirkland, Gordana 
Dodig-Crnkovic. Data versus Information. International Journal “Information 
Theories and Applications”, Vol. 24, Number 4, 2017, ISSN 1310-0513 (printed), 
ISSN 1313-0463 (online), pp. 303 -321. 


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