Hi FISers,

About 6 months ago, John Stuart Reid [1] of the Sonic Age Lab in Cumbria, 
England, published on-line a fascinating video strip showing the sound 
vibration-induced formation of standing waves in individual water droplets of 
50 to 100 microns in size [1], almost comparable to living cells, which is 
reproduced below (click the picture to activate the video).


Sessile drop experiment<https://youtu.be/Z0St42jfgMU>
In this short video we see a field of sessile drops, many of them in the 50 to 
100 micron range, mimicking the mass of many types of human cell. The sound 

The standing waves formed within these small water droplets are the examples of 
the Faraday waves first reported in 1831 [2]. In the following explanation, 
John invokes the resonance mechanism to account for the differential effects of 
the same sound input on the wave patterns exhibited by differently sized sessle 
droplets, which I think is valid:
"In this short video we see a field of sessile drops, many of them in the 50 to 
100 micron range, mimicking the mass of many types of human cell. The sound 
used to excite the drops is code 133 of Cyma Technologies AMI 1000 sound 
therapy device. The entire field is around 4 mm in width yet the uptake of 
acoustic energy is significantly different between the various sizes of 
microscopic sessile drops, and at the point of Faraday Instability only two 
droplets reach full expression, while in others there is a very reduced 
acoustic uptake. This suggests that resonance may play a major role in the 
ability of cells to absorb acoustic energy."
The reason I am interested in the Faraday waves in sessile droplets is because 
I saw the link between these waves and the waves that I postulated to be 
induced by energy input in all the material systems in the Universe, from atoms 
to enzymes, cells, brains, human societies, and to the Universe Itself, 
depending on the pattern of which the functions of a given system is thought to 
be determined [3, 4].  This idea is schematically represented in Figure 1 
reproduced from [3, 4]:

Figure 1.  One possibility to account for the universality of the Planckian 
distribution in nature is to postulate that the wave-particle duality first 
discovered in atomic physics operates at all scales of material systems, from 
atoms to the Universe. Reproduced from [2, 3].

Figure 1 can readily accommodate the sound-induced Faraday waves in sessile 
water droplets captured by the CymaScope simply by adding a 10^th arrow 
directed to "10. Faraday waves in sessile droplets".

According to this interpretation, the sound-induced Faraday waves formed in 
sessile water droplets as visualized  the CymaScope obey and embody the 
principle of wave-particle duality (PWPD) and hence I predict that the digital 
CymaScopic images of these droplets should fit PDE, the Planckian Distribution 
Equation, y = (A/(x + B)^5/(Exp (C/(x + B)) - 1), where x is the signal 
intensity of the CymaScopic image pixels, and y is their frequency.  If this 
prediction proves to be validated, the phenomenon of the sound-induced Faraday 
waves in sessile water droplets visualized by the CymaScope may be considered 
as one of the simplest mesoscopic material system in which PWPD is proven to 
operate, thus opening up the possibility that PWPD may also operate in living 
cells and their component biopolymers as I suggested in the abstract to the 
2017 Biophysical Society Annual Meeting [6] which is reproduced below:

"261-Pos Board B26
Protein Folding as a Resonance Phenomenon, with Folding Free Energies 
Determined by Protein-Hydration Shell Interactions   Sungchul Ji. Pharmacology 
and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Kendall Park, NJ, USA.

The single-molecule enzyme-turnover-time histogram of cholesterol oxidase [1] 
resembles the blackbody radiation spectrum at 4000 K. This observation 
motivated the author to generalize the Planck radiation equation (PRE), Sl = 
(8phc/l5 )/(ehc/lkT 1), by replacing the universal constants and temperature by 
free parameters, resulting in the Planckian Distribution Equation (PDE), y = 
(A/(x þ B)5 )/(eC/(x þ B) 1) [2]. Since the first factor in PRE reflects the 
number of standing waves generated in the blackbody and the second factor the 
average energy of the standing waves [3], it was postulated that any material 
system that generates data fitting PDE can be interpreted as implicating 
standing waves with associated average energies [2]. PDE has been found to fit 
the long-tailed histogram of the folding free-energy changes measured from 
4,300 proteins isolated from E. coli [4]. One possible interpretation of this 
finding is (i) that proteins (P) and their hydration shells (HS) are organized 
systems of oscillators with unique sets of natural frequencies, (ii) Ps assume 
their conformations whose standing waves are frequency-matched (or resonate) 
with the standing waves of their HSs, and (iii) the folding free energies are 
determined by the resonance frequencies of the P-HS complexes.

[1] Lu, H. P., Xun, L. and Xie, X. S. (1998). Single-Molecule Enzymatic 
Dynamics. Science 282, 1877-1882.
[2] Ji, S. (2012) Isomorphism between Blackbody Radiation and Enzyme Catalysis. 
In: Molecular Theory of the Living Cell: Concepts, Molecular Mechanisms and 
Biomedical Applications. Springer, New York, pp. 343-368. http:// 
[3] Blackbody radiation. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/mod6. html
[4] Dill, K. A., Ghosh, K. and Schmidt, J. D. (2011) Physical limits of cells 
and proteomes. PNAS 108:17876-82."

   [1] Reid, J. S. 
   [2] Farady waves. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faraday_wave
   [3] Ji, S. (2015).  Planckian distributions in molecular machines, living 
cells, and brains: The wave-particle duality in biomedical sciences. 
Proceedings of the International Conference on Biology and Biomedical 
Engineering, Vienna, March 15-17, 2015. Pp. 115-137.  PDF at 
   [4] Ji, S. (2018).  The Cell Language Theory: Connecting Mind and Matter.  
World Scientific Publishing, New Jersey.  P. 360.
  Symmetry: Science and Culture 27(2): 99-127 (2016).  PDF at 
   [6] Ji, S. (2017). Protein Folding as a Resonance Phenomenon, with Folding 
Free Energies Determined by Protein-Hydration Shell Interactions

If you have any questions or comments, let me know.


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