Hi FISers, About 6 months ago, John Stuart Reid  of the Sonic Age Lab in Cumbria, England, published on-line a fascinating video strip showing the sound vibration-induced formation of standing waves in individual water droplets of 50 to 100 microns in size , almost comparable to living cells, which is reproduced below (click the picture to activate the video).
https://youtu.be/Z0St42jfgMU [https://i.ytimg.com/vi/Z0St42jfgMU/hqdefault.jpg]<https://youtu.be/Z0St42jfgMU> Sessile drop experiment<https://youtu.be/Z0St42jfgMU> youtu.be In this short video we see a field of sessile drops, many of them in the 50 to 100 micron range, mimicking the mass of many types of human cell. The sound us... The standing waves formed within these small water droplets are the examples of the Faraday waves first reported in 1831 . In the following explanation, John invokes the resonance mechanism to account for the differential effects of the same sound input on the wave patterns exhibited by differently sized sessle droplets, which I think is valid: "In this short video we see a field of sessile drops, many of them in the 50 to 100 micron range, mimicking the mass of many types of human cell. The sound used to excite the drops is code 133 of Cyma Technologies AMI 1000 sound therapy device. The entire field is around 4 mm in width yet the uptake of acoustic energy is significantly different between the various sizes of microscopic sessile drops, and at the point of Faraday Instability only two droplets reach full expression, while in others there is a very reduced acoustic uptake. This suggests that resonance may play a major role in the ability of cells to absorb acoustic energy." The reason I am interested in the Faraday waves in sessile droplets is because I saw the link between these waves and the waves that I postulated to be induced by energy input in all the material systems in the Universe, from atoms to enzymes, cells, brains, human societies, and to the Universe Itself, depending on the pattern of which the functions of a given system is thought to be determined [3, 4]. This idea is schematically represented in Figure 1 reproduced from [3, 4]: [cid:3ba4a188-c858-4818-ab73-4e0a020409e5] Figure 1. One possibility to account for the universality of the Planckian distribution in nature is to postulate that the wave-particle duality first discovered in atomic physics operates at all scales of material systems, from atoms to the Universe. Reproduced from [2, 3]. Figure 1 can readily accommodate the sound-induced Faraday waves in sessile water droplets captured by the CymaScope simply by adding a 10^th arrow directed to "10. Faraday waves in sessile droplets". According to this interpretation, the sound-induced Faraday waves formed in sessile water droplets as visualized the CymaScope obey and embody the principle of wave-particle duality (PWPD) and hence I predict that the digital CymaScopic images of these droplets should fit PDE, the Planckian Distribution Equation, y = (A/(x + B)^5/(Exp (C/(x + B)) - 1), where x is the signal intensity of the CymaScopic image pixels, and y is their frequency. If this prediction proves to be validated, the phenomenon of the sound-induced Faraday waves in sessile water droplets visualized by the CymaScope may be considered as one of the simplest mesoscopic material system in which PWPD is proven to operate, thus opening up the possibility that PWPD may also operate in living cells and their component biopolymers as I suggested in the abstract to the 2017 Biophysical Society Annual Meeting  which is reproduced below: "261-Pos Board B26 Protein Folding as a Resonance Phenomenon, with Folding Free Energies Determined by Protein-Hydration Shell Interactions Sungchul Ji. Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Kendall Park, NJ, USA. The single-molecule enzyme-turnover-time histogram of cholesterol oxidase  resembles the blackbody radiation spectrum at 4000 K. This observation motivated the author to generalize the Planck radiation equation (PRE), Sl = (8phc/l5 )/(ehc/lkT 1), by replacing the universal constants and temperature by free parameters, resulting in the Planckian Distribution Equation (PDE), y = (A/(x þ B)5 )/(eC/(x þ B) 1) . Since the first factor in PRE reflects the number of standing waves generated in the blackbody and the second factor the average energy of the standing waves , it was postulated that any material system that generates data fitting PDE can be interpreted as implicating standing waves with associated average energies . PDE has been found to fit the long-tailed histogram of the folding free-energy changes measured from 4,300 proteins isolated from E. coli . One possible interpretation of this finding is (i) that proteins (P) and their hydration shells (HS) are organized systems of oscillators with unique sets of natural frequencies, (ii) Ps assume their conformations whose standing waves are frequency-matched (or resonate) with the standing waves of their HSs, and (iii) the folding free energies are determined by the resonance frequencies of the P-HS complexes.  Lu, H. P., Xun, L. and Xie, X. S. (1998). Single-Molecule Enzymatic Dynamics. Science 282, 1877-1882.  Ji, S. (2012) Isomorphism between Blackbody Radiation and Enzyme Catalysis. In: Molecular Theory of the Living Cell: Concepts, Molecular Mechanisms and Biomedical Applications. Springer, New York, pp. 343-368. http:// www.conformon.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Isomorphism_blackbody_ radiation_enzymic_catalysis_p343_p368.pdf  Blackbody radiation. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/mod6. html  Dill, K. A., Ghosh, K. and Schmidt, J. D. (2011) Physical limits of cells and proteomes. PNAS 108:17876-82." References:  Reid, J. S. http://www.cymascope.com/index.html<http://www.cymascope.com/index.html><http://www.cymascope.com/index.html><http://www.cymascope.com/index.html>  Farady waves. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faraday_wave  Ji, S. (2015). Planckian distributions in molecular machines, living cells, and brains: The wave-particle duality in biomedical sciences. Proceedings of the International Conference on Biology and Biomedical Engineering, Vienna, March 15-17, 2015. Pp. 115-137. PDF at http://www.conformon.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/PDE_Vienna_2015.pdf  Ji, S. (2018). The Cell Language Theory: Connecting Mind and Matter. World Scientific Publishing, New Jersey. P. 360.  Ji, S. (2016). WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY IN PHYSICS AND BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES.<http://www.conformon.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/PDE_SymmetryFestival_2016.pdf> Symmetry: Science and Culture 27(2): 99-127 (2016). PDF at http://www.conformon.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/PDE_SymmetryFestival_2016.pdf| <http://www.conformon.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/PDE_SymmetryFestival_2016.pdf>  Ji, S. (2017). Protein Folding as a Resonance Phenomenon, with Folding Free Energies Determined by Protein-Hydration Shell Interactions DOI<https://www.cell.com/biophysj/abstract/S0006-3495(16)31347-9?code=cell-site#>: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2016.11.31<https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2016.11.317> (www.cell.com/biophysj/pdf/S0006-3495(16)31347-9.pdf<http://www.cell.com/biophysj/pdf/S0006-3495(16)31347-9.pdf> If you have any questions or comments, let me know. Sung
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