Rebecca, et. al.,

After re-reading your post, and reading Scott's response, it strikes me that 
you may have been looking for information about early (e.g. silent, 
"primitive?") film systems that involved viewing 16mm film without lens or 
projector. Your use of the term "installation" made me assume expanded cinema, 
film installation, etc., but then there's your reference to the zoetrope, which 
suggests that you're looking for something further back in history. Of course, 
the zoetrope did not use film of any kind. What's more, 16mm film wasn't 
invented until 1923, by which time projection - with lenses - was, of course, 
standard practice in film exhibition. I'm not aware of any viewing systems for 
16mm that don't employ at least lenses: flatbed editors don't quite "project" 
the images, at least not in the same way a projector does, and devices like 
Moviolas and Moviscopes don't involve projection - the film image is simply 
magnified into a viewer, not unlike the Kinetsoscope. But these systems are 
used to edit film reels, not to show loops. And they all use lenses. 

Specifying your research project would be helpful - can we have a little more 

Dr. Jonathan Walley
Associate Professor
Department of Cinema
Denison University

On Dec 17, 2013, at 12:44 PM, Scott Dorsey wrote:

> Well, the first loop system was the Edison Kinetoscope but that was 35mm..
> --scott
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