Solon Luigi Lutz wrote:

              -------Sequential Output-------- ---Sequential Input-- --Random--
              -Per Char- --Block--- -Rewrite-- -Per Char- --Block--- --Seeks---
Machine    MB K/sec %CPU K/sec %CPU K/sec %CPU K/sec %CPU K/sec %CPU  /sec %CPU
         1000 37922 31.5 48829 12.0 23827  5.0 30054 36.0 43666  6.0 1120.0  2.5

Interesting - your CPU doesn't look overwhelmed much.

But I have not been able to get more than 17 MB/s when using Samba to
transfer data - FTP maxes out around 27 MB/s. I also tried that on
i386 32-bit and found it to be 8 MB/s and 17 MB/s - not good, but
nothing to worry.

What made me feel really uncomfortable was the fact, that just some
minutes ago some 3000 1GB files suddenly disappeared while working
in a directory. They where gone, but the filesystem did not report
some additional 3TB to be free and after unmounting and remounting the
filesystem the files were back where the belonged...

This just happened some minutes later again, now with only 2500 files
dis- and -reappearing again.

This can mean either file system corruption (which fsck fixed on boot?), a bug (read cache bug, where the memory representation of the directory doesn't agree with on-disk state) or a hardware memory error. Of these, hardware errors are easiest to check in your case. Download a memtest86 boot CD ISO, burn it and let it run for a few hours. Next, you can try a "full" fsck, which would probably a few last days on such a big array (big arrays are inconvenient to have without journaling). If both fail, we may look for a bug somewhere.

Questions until now:

1. 10TB as a single volume, too big for good? (fsck time: 30 min with 

Yes, too big. Softupdates doesn't even do a full fsck - if you tried a full fsck it will require about a dozen GB of memory (or memory+swap) and take a really long time. If you're not scared of it, you should run 7-current and re-create the file system with gjournal, or even ZFS.

2. GELI unstable on big disks and/or AMD64?

You're the first to complain :)

3. Why is Samba so slow?

Search Google... Samba is notoriously slow on FreeBSD, but there are few ways to tune it which will help.

4. Does the crypto-framwork gain speed advantages from dual-core CPUs?

No, and the same goes for most GEOM classes.

5. Will the GPT-stuff change over the next releases in a way I need to

I don't think so, except if someone discovers an incompatibility in the way FreeBSD handles GPT wrt other OSs. Shouldn't happen.

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