On Mon, Nov 05, 2007 at 11:53:13AM -0800, Sean Murphy wrote: > I have a FreeBSD 6.2 Release box with a single ide that has user data > and the FreeBSD OS on a hard disk that is failing. I need advice on the > best way to clone the entire disk (or at least the data) onto a larger > ide disk drive, then pull the failing disk and replace it with the > clone. What is the best way in FreeBSD to do that?
If you can get the new disk physically installed and recognized and running before the old disk completely fails, then it should be no problem. Build the file systems on the new disk as you want them, then use dump/retore to move the data. The dump/restore needs to be done one filesystem at a time. NOTE: For best results, this should all be done in single user mode with no other thing running to avoid changes in files confusing things. It will work in full multi user mode, but you may get some files in indeterminate condition if they happen to change during the copy process. Either use sysinstall (/usr/sbin/sysinstall) to slice and partition the new drive and build file systems on it or do it yourself with fdisk, bsdlabel and newfs. Since you are using a larger drive, think out the sizes you want for the partitions on the new drive. I am guessing from the way you talk here, that the system is not dual booted with some other OS. Given that presumption: (This is right out of the bsdlabel man page, by the way. I just changed numbers and device names to fit the situation) NOTE: The dd-s below are just to make sure the label areas and such are wiped clean in case the manufacturer made some presumptions and wrote something there. They might not really be needed, but won't hurt anything and take just a moment. Create one large slice, marked bootable for FreeBSD: dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/ad1 bs=512 count=1024 fdisk -BI da0 Write a basic label and boot record on the slice: dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/ad1s1 bs=512 count=1024 bsdlabel -w -B ad1s1 Partition the slice by using the edit function of bsdlabel: bsdlabel -e ad1s1 This will put you in an edit screen with the beginnings of partition information. Ignore anything it might have before the lines that read: # /dev/ad1s1: 8 partitions: # size offset fstype [fsize bsize bps/cpg] After that you will see a list of partitions. There should only be one 'c' partition listed. Do not change that line, but copy it enough times to have one for each partition you want. Lets say you want root, swap, /tmp, /usr, /var and /home. Then make it something like: # /dev/ad1s1: 8 partitions: # size offset fstype [fsize bsize bps/cpg] a: 524288 0 4.2BSD 2048 16384 32776 b: 2572288 * swap c: 78316875 0 unused 0 0 # "raw" part, don't edit d: 1048576 * 4.2BSD 2048 16384 8 e: 4194304 * 4.2BSD 2048 16384 28552 f: 6291456 * 4.2BSD 2048 16384 28552 g: * * 4.2BSD 2048 16384 28552 Then just :wq out of the edit session and your label is nicely written. Using the stars for offset and final size tells bsdlabel to calculate the offsets for you and make the last partition take up all the remaining available space. The first partition should have the offset specified as '0'. The numbers I have here are in 512 byte blocks and give the following sizes. Choose your own according to your needs. a: 256 MB I mount as / b: 1256 MB is swap d: 512 MB I mount as /tmp e: 2048 MB I mount as /usr f: 3072 MB I mount as /var g: Remainder MB I mount as /home Once that is finished, then you need to run new fs on each partition except the one for swap (b). eg. newfs a, d, e, f, g Generally, unless you need extra inodes for a lot of small files or expect only unusually large files, you can just take the defaults for newfs. so: newfs /dev/ad1s1a newfs /dev/ad1s1d newfs /dev/ad1s1e newfs /dev/ad1s1f newfs /dev/ad1s1g Now you need to make mount points for and mount each partition. Something like: mkdir /newroot mount /dev/ad1s1a /newroot mkdir /newusr mount /dev/ad1s1e /newusr mkdir /newvar mount /dev/ad1s1f /newvar mkdir /newhome mount /dev/ad1s1g /newhome You don't usually need to copy /tmp to the new disk, though you can do that if you want as well. Then do the dump/restore-s cd /newroot dump 0af - / | restore -rf - cd /newusr dump 0af - /usr | restore -rf - cd /newvar dump 0af - /var | restore -rf - cd /newhome dump 0af - /home | restore -rf - At the end of each dump it might ask you if you want to set permissions on . just answer no. I don't think it does that with the restore -r, but if it does, then answer no. After all this, you should be able to just physically switch the disks and boot on the new one. ////jerry > > Thanks > _______________________________________________ > firstname.lastname@example.org mailing list > http://lists.freebsd.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-questions > To unsubscribe, send any mail to "[EMAIL PROTECTED]" _______________________________________________ email@example.com mailing list http://lists.freebsd.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-questions To unsubscribe, send any mail to "[EMAIL PROTECTED]"