Okay, so here goes:

SYNOPSIS

Wireless network gets detected, but has "no carrier". So I can't connect.

PROMPT

All prompts are indicated as $ to avoid confusion with #-comment lines, but
in reality most things are done by root.

THE NETWORK

SSID: SpeedTouch1EC5E8
radio type: 11g
security type: WPA2-PSK
PSK: known
Station: Thomson ST 780 WL Wireless modem
Signal: present (Windows picks it up right away) and generally excellent

THE COMPUTER

Thoshiba Satellite P200 1A4 notebook
Wireless card: Intel 3945ABG
OS: FreeBSD 7.0-RC3

KERNEL

The driver for the Intel 3945ABG card is wpi.
As instructed by its manpage, my /boot/loader.conf reads:

$ cat /boot/loader.conf
if_wpi_load="YES"
wlan_load="YES"
wlan_amrr_load="YES"
firmware_load="YES"
wpifw_load="YES"
wlan_xauth_load="YES"

legal.intel_wpi.license_ack=1
$

Relevant dmesg greps:

$ dmesg|grep wpi
wpi0: <Intel(R) PRO/Wireless 3945ABG> mem 0xd8000000-0xd8000fff irq 17 at device 0.0 on pci4
wpi0: Ethernet address: 00:1b:77:b5:98:bd
wpi0: [ITHREAD]
wpi0: 11a rates: 6Mbps 9Mbps 12Mbps 18Mbps 24Mbps 36Mbps 48Mbps 54Mbps
wpi0: 11b rates: 1Mbps 2Mbps 5.5Mbps 11Mbps
wpi0: 11g rates: 1Mbps 2Mbps 5.5Mbps 11Mbps 6Mbps 9Mbps 12Mbps 18Mbps 24Mbps 36Mbps 48Mbps 54Mbps
$ dmesg|grep wlan
$ dmesg|grep firmware
$

CONFIGURATION

My /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf:

$ cat /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
#eapol_version=2

network={
  ssid="SpeedTouch1EC5E8"
  psk="********" (the correct preshared key, that is)
#  bssid=00:90:d0:f3:e1:d2
  mode=0
  proto=WPA RSN
#  key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
#  pairwise=CCMP
#  group=CCMP
  scan_ssid=1
}
$

STEPS

$ wpa_supplicant -d -i wpi0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant
Initializing interface 'wpi0' conf '/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf' driver 'default' ctrl_interface 'N/A' bridge 'N/A'
Configuration file '/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf' -> '/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf'
Reading configuration file '/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf'
Priority group 0
   id=0 ssid='SpeedTouch1EC5E8'
Initializing interface (2) 'wpi0'
EAPOL: SUPP_PAE entering state DISCONNECTED
EAPOL: KEY_RX entering state NO_KEY_RECEIVE
EAPOL: SUPP_BE entering state INITIALIZE
EAP: EAP entering state DISABLED
EAPOL: External notification - portEnabled=0
EAPOL: External notification - portValid=0
Own MAC address: 00:1b:77:b5:98:bd
wpa_driver_bsd_set_wpa: enabled=1
wpa_driver_bsd_set_wpa_internal: wpa=3 privacy=1
wpa_driver_bsd_del_key: keyidx=0
wpa_driver_bsd_del_key: keyidx=1
wpa_driver_bsd_del_key: keyidx=2
wpa_driver_bsd_del_key: keyidx=3
wpa_driver_bsd_set_countermeasures: enabled=0
wpa_driver_bsd_set_drop_unencrypted: enabled=1
Setting scan request: 0 sec 100000 usec
Added interface wpi0
Received 0 bytes of scan results (0 BSSes)
Scan results: 0
Selecting BSS from priority group 0
Try to find WPA-enabled AP
Try to find non-WPA AP
No suitable AP found.
Setting scan request: 5 sec 0 usec
State: DISCONNECTED -> SCANNING
Starting AP scan (specific SSID)
Scan SSID - hexdump_ascii(len=16):
     53 70 65 65 64 54 6f 75 63 68 31 45 43 35 45 38   SpeedTouch1EC5E8
Trying to get current scan results first without requesting a new scan to speed up initial association
Received 0 bytes of scan results (0 BSSes)
Scan results: 0
Selecting BSS from priority group 0
Try to find WPA-enabled AP
Try to find non-WPA AP
No suitable AP found.
Setting scan request: 0 sec 0 usec
Starting AP scan (broadcast SSID)
Received 0 bytes of scan results (0 BSSes)
Scan results: 0
Selecting BSS from priority group 0
Try to find WPA-enabled AP
Try to find non-WPA AP
No suitable AP found.
Setting scan request: 5 sec 0 usec
Starting AP scan (specific SSID)
Scan SSID - hexdump_ascii(len=16):
     53 70 65 65 64 54 6f 75 63 68 31 45 43 35 45 38   SpeedTouch1EC5E8
Received 0 bytes of scan results (0 BSSes)
Scan results: 0
Selecting BSS from priority group 0
Try to find WPA-enabled AP
Try to find non-WPA AP
No suitable AP found.
Setting scan request: 5 sec 0 usec
Starting AP scan (broadcast SSID)
Received 0 bytes of scan results (0 BSSes)
Scan results: 0
Selecting BSS from priority group 0
Try to find WPA-enabled AP
Try to find non-WPA AP
No suitable AP found.
Setting scan request: 5 sec 0 usec
Starting AP scan (specific SSID)
Scan SSID - hexdump_ascii(len=16):
     53 70 65 65 64 54 6f 75 63 68 31 45 43 35 45 38   SpeedTouch1EC5E8
Received 0 bytes of scan results (0 BSSes)
Scan results: 0
Selecting BSS from priority group 0
Try to find WPA-enabled AP
Try to find non-WPA AP
No suitable AP found.
Setting scan request: 5 sec 0 usec
Starting AP scan (broadcast SSID)
Received 0 bytes of scan results (0 BSSes)
Scan results: 0
Selecting BSS from priority group 0
Try to find WPA-enabled AP
Try to find non-WPA AP
No suitable AP found.
Setting scan request: 5 sec 0 usec
Starting AP scan (specific SSID)
Scan SSID - hexdump_ascii(len=16):
     53 70 65 65 64 54 6f 75 63 68 31 45 43 35 45 38   SpeedTouch1EC5E8
Received 0 bytes of scan results (0 BSSes)
Scan results: 0
Selecting BSS from priority group 0
Try to find WPA-enabled AP
Try to find non-WPA AP
No suitable AP found.
Setting scan request: 5 sec 0 usec
Starting AP scan (broadcast SSID)
Received 0 bytes of scan results (0 BSSes)
Scan results: 0
Selecting BSS from priority group 0
Try to find WPA-enabled AP
Try to find non-WPA AP
No suitable AP found.
Setting scan request: 5 sec 0 usec
Starting AP scan (specific SSID)
Scan SSID - hexdump_ascii(len=16):
     53 70 65 65 64 54 6f 75 63 68 31 45 43 35 45 38   SpeedTouch1EC5E8
Received 0 bytes of scan results (0 BSSes)
Scan results: 0
Selecting BSS from priority group 0
Try to find WPA-enabled AP
Try to find non-WPA AP
No suitable AP found.
Setting scan request: 5 sec 0 usec
Starting AP scan (broadcast SSID)
Received 0 bytes of scan results (0 BSSes)
Scan results: 0
Selecting BSS from priority group 0
Try to find WPA-enabled AP
Try to find non-WPA AP
No suitable AP found.
Setting scan request: 5 sec 0 usec
Starting AP scan (specific SSID)
Scan SSID - hexdump_ascii(len=16):
     53 70 65 65 64 54 6f 75 63 68 31 45 43 35 45 38   SpeedTouch1EC5E8
Received 0 bytes of scan results (0 BSSes)
Scan results: 0
Selecting BSS from priority group 0
Try to find WPA-enabled AP
Try to find non-WPA AP
No suitable AP found.
Setting scan request: 5 sec 0 usec
Starting AP scan (broadcast SSID)
Received 0 bytes of scan results (1 BSSes)
Scan results: 1
Selecting BSS from priority group 0
Try to find WPA-enabled AP
0: 00:90:d0:f3:e1:d2 ssid='SpeedTouch1EC5E8' wpa_ie_len=30 rsn_ie_len=26 caps=0x11
   selected based on RSN IE
   selected WPA AP 00:90:d0:f3:e1:d2 ssid='SpeedTouch1EC5E8'
Try to find non-WPA AP
Trying to associate with 00:90:d0:f3:e1:d2 (SSID='SpeedTouch1EC5E8' freq=2437 MHz)
Cancelling scan request
WPA: clearing own WPA/RSN IE
Automatic auth_alg selection: 0x1
wpa_driver_bsd_set_auth_alg alg 0x1 authmode 1
RSN: using IEEE 802.11i/D9.0
WPA: Selected cipher suites: group 8 pairwise 24 key_mgmt 2 proto 2
WPA: set AP WPA IE - hexdump(len=30): dd 1c 00 50 f2 01 01 00 00 50 f2 02 02 00 00 50 f2 04 00 50 f2 02 01 00 00 50 f2 02 0c 00 WPA: set AP RSN IE - hexdump(len=26): 30 18 01 00 00 0f ac 02 02 00 00 0f ac 04 00 0f ac 02 01 00 00 0f ac 02 0c 00
WPA: using GTK TKIP
WPA: using PTK CCMP
WPA: using KEY_MGMT WPA-PSK
WPA: Set own WPA IE default - hexdump(len=22): 30 14 01 00 00 0f ac 02 01 00 00 0f ac 04 01 00 00 0f ac 02 00 00
No keys have been configured - skip key clearing
wpa_driver_bsd_set_drop_unencrypted: enabled=1
State: SCANNING -> ASSOCIATING
wpa_driver_bsd_associate: ssid 'SpeedTouch1EC5E8' wpa ie len 22 pairwise 3 group 2 key mgmt 1
wpa_driver_bsd_associate: set PRIVACY 1
Setting authentication timeout: 10 sec 0 usec
EAPOL: External notification - EAP success=0
EAPOL: External notification - EAP fail=0
EAPOL: External notification - portControl=Auto
RSN: Ignored PMKID candidate without preauth flag
Authentication with 00:00:00:00:00:00 timed out.
Added BSSID 00:90:d0:f3:e1:d2 into blacklist
No keys have been configured - skip key clearing
State: ASSOCIATING -> DISCONNECTED
EAPOL: External notification - portEnabled=0
EAPOL: External notification - portValid=0
EAPOL: External notification - EAP success=0
Setting scan request: 0 sec 0 usec
State: DISCONNECTED -> SCANNING
Starting AP scan (specific SSID)
Scan SSID - hexdump_ascii(len=16):
     53 70 65 65 64 54 6f 75 63 68 31 45 43 35 45 38   SpeedTouch1EC5E8
Received 0 bytes of scan results (1 BSSes)
Scan results: 1
Selecting BSS from priority group 0
Try to find WPA-enabled AP
0: 00:90:d0:f3:e1:d2 ssid='SpeedTouch1EC5E8' wpa_ie_len=30 rsn_ie_len=26 caps=0x11
   selected based on RSN IE
   selected WPA AP 00:90:d0:f3:e1:d2 ssid='SpeedTouch1EC5E8'
Try to find non-WPA AP
Trying to associate with 00:90:d0:f3:e1:d2 (SSID='SpeedTouch1EC5E8' freq=2437 MHz)
Cancelling scan request
WPA: clearing own WPA/RSN IE
Automatic auth_alg selection: 0x1
wpa_driver_bsd_set_auth_alg alg 0x1 authmode 1
RSN: using IEEE 802.11i/D9.0
WPA: Selected cipher suites: group 8 pairwise 24 key_mgmt 2 proto 2
WPA: set AP WPA IE - hexdump(len=30): dd 1c 00 50 f2 01 01 00 00 50 f2 02 02 00 00 50 f2 04 00 50 f2 02 01 00 00 50 f2 02 0c 00 WPA: set AP RSN IE - hexdump(len=26): 30 18 01 00 00 0f ac 02 02 00 00 0f ac 04 00 0f ac 02 01 00 00 0f ac 02 0c 00
WPA: using GTK TKIP
WPA: using PTK CCMP
WPA: using KEY_MGMT WPA-PSK
WPA: Set own WPA IE default - hexdump(len=22): 30 14 01 00 00 0f ac 02 01 00 00 0f ac 04 01 00 00 0f ac 02 00 00
No keys have been configured - skip key clearing
wpa_driver_bsd_set_drop_unencrypted: enabled=1
State: SCANNING -> ASSOCIATING
wpa_driver_bsd_associate: ssid 'SpeedTouch1EC5E8' wpa ie len 22 pairwise 3 group 2 key mgmt 1
wpa_driver_bsd_associate: set PRIVACY 1
Setting authentication timeout: 10 sec 0 usec
EAPOL: External notification - EAP success=0
EAPOL: External notification - EAP fail=0
EAPOL: External notification - portControl=Auto
RSN: Ignored PMKID candidate without preauth flag
Authentication with 00:00:00:00:00:00 timed out.
BSSID 00:90:d0:f3:e1:d2 blacklist count incremented to 2
No keys have been configured - skip key clearing
State: ASSOCIATING -> DISCONNECTED
EAPOL: External notification - portEnabled=0
EAPOL: External notification - portValid=0
EAPOL: External notification - EAP success=0
Setting scan request: 0 sec 0 usec
State: DISCONNECTED -> SCANNING
Starting AP scan (broadcast SSID)
Received 0 bytes of scan results (1 BSSes)
Scan results: 1
Selecting BSS from priority group 0
Try to find WPA-enabled AP
0: 00:90:d0:f3:e1:d2 ssid='SpeedTouch1EC5E8' wpa_ie_len=30 rsn_ie_len=26 caps=0x11
   skip - blacklisted
Try to find non-WPA AP
0: 00:90:d0:f3:e1:d2 ssid='SpeedTouch1EC5E8' wpa_ie_len=30 rsn_ie_len=26 caps=0x11
   skip - blacklisted
No APs found - clear blacklist and try again
Removed BSSID 00:90:d0:f3:e1:d2 from blacklist (clear)
Selecting BSS from priority group 0
Try to find WPA-enabled AP
0: 00:90:d0:f3:e1:d2 ssid='SpeedTouch1EC5E8' wpa_ie_len=30 rsn_ie_len=26 caps=0x11
   selected based on RSN IE
   selected WPA AP 00:90:d0:f3:e1:d2 ssid='SpeedTouch1EC5E8'
Try to find non-WPA AP
Trying to associate with 00:90:d0:f3:e1:d2 (SSID='SpeedTouch1EC5E8' freq=2437 MHz)
Cancelling scan request
WPA: clearing own WPA/RSN IE
Automatic auth_alg selection: 0x1
wpa_driver_bsd_set_auth_alg alg 0x1 authmode 1
RSN: using IEEE 802.11i/D9.0
WPA: Selected cipher suites: group 8 pairwise 24 key_mgmt 2 proto 2
WPA: set AP WPA IE - hexdump(len=30): dd 1c 00 50 f2 01 01 00 00 50 f2 02 02 00 00 50 f2 04 00 50 f2 02 01 00 00 50 f2 02 0c 00 WPA: set AP RSN IE - hexdump(len=26): 30 18 01 00 00 0f ac 02 02 00 00 0f ac 04 00 0f ac 02 01 00 00 0f ac 02 0c 00
WPA: using GTK TKIP
WPA: using PTK CCMP
WPA: using KEY_MGMT WPA-PSK
WPA: Set own WPA IE default - hexdump(len=22): 30 14 01 00 00 0f ac 02 01 00 00 0f ac 04 01 00 00 0f ac 02 00 00
No keys have been configured - skip key clearing
wpa_driver_bsd_set_drop_unencrypted: enabled=1
State: SCANNING -> ASSOCIATING
wpa_driver_bsd_associate: ssid 'SpeedTouch1EC5E8' wpa ie len 22 pairwise 3 group 2 key mgmt 1
wpa_driver_bsd_associate: set PRIVACY 1
Setting authentication timeout: 10 sec 0 usec
EAPOL: External notification - EAP success=0
EAPOL: External notification - EAP fail=0
EAPOL: External notification - portControl=Auto
RSN: Ignored PMKID candidate without preauth flag

(after which it keeps repeating the above story until I stop it)

CTRL-EVENT-TERMINATING - signal 2 received
Removing interface wpi0
State: ASSOCIATING -> DISCONNECTED
No keys have been configured - skip key clearing
EAPOL: External notification - portEnabled=0
EAPOL: External notification - portValid=0
wpa_driver_bsd_set_wpa: enabled=0
wpa_driver_bsd_set_wpa_internal: wpa=0 privacy=0
wpa_driver_bsd_set_drop_unencrypted: enabled=0
wpa_driver_bsd_set_countermeasures: enabled=0
No keys have been configured - skip key clearing
Cancelling scan request
Cancelling authentication timeout
wpa_driver_bsd_set_wpa_internal: wpa=0 privacy=1
$

After this:

$ ifcondig wpi0
wpi0: flags=8843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> metric 0 mtu 1500
        ether 00:1b:77:b5:98:bd
        media: IEEE 802.11 Wireless Ethernet autoselect mode 11g (DS/1Mbps)
        status: no carrier
        ssid SpeedTouch1EC5E8 channel 6 (2437 Mhz 11g)
        authmode WPA2/802.11i privacy ON deftxkey UNDEF txpower 50 bmiss 7
        scanvalid 60 protmode CTS roaming MANUAL
$

As you can see, there's still no carrier, so

$ dhclient wpi0
wpi0: no link .............. giving up
$

If there's anything else you need to know, just holler.

Thanks in advance,

Alphons

--
All right, that does it Bill [Donahue]. I'm pretty sure that killing Jesus
is not very Christian.
                             -- pope Benedict XVI, South Park episode #158

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