I think Wagner and Monod agree, actually.  If I extrapolate what Jenny said 
Wagner said, *mutation's* randomness is a statement of ignorance, presumably 
about where innovation comes from in biological evolution.  So, both Monod and 
Wagner would say innovation comes from mutation.

On 08/09/2017 10:22 AM, Grant Holland wrote:
> According to Jacques Monod, chance mutations are the /only /form of 
> innovation in living systems.
> On p. 112 of  his book "Chance and Necessity" he says "...since they [chance 
> mutations] constitute the /only/ possible source of modifications in the 
> genetic text,...it necessarily follows that chance /alone/ is at the source 
> of every innovation, of all creation in the biosphere. [Emphasis is his.]

> On 8/9/17 10:01 AM, Steven A Smith wrote:
>> Jenny -
>> What a powerful quote:
>>     /Natural selection can //preserve//innovations, but it cannot
>>     create them./

>> On 8/9/17 8:56 AM, Jenny Quillien wrote:
>>> An excellent foray into such a topic is /Arrival of the Fittest: how nature 
>>> innovates/ by Andreas Wagner.
>>> From the Preface:  the power of natural selection is beyond dispute, but 
>>> this power has limits. Natural selection can /preserve/ innovations, but it 
>>> cannot create them. And calling the change that creates them random is just 
>>> another way of admitting our ignorance about it. Nature's any innovations- 
>>> some uncannily perfect - call for natural principles that accelerate life's 
>>> ability to innovate, its innovability.

☣ glen

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