Desfile militer dalam rangka peringatan 75 tahun Kemenangan di Stalingrad.
Desfile militar ruso por el 75° aniversario de la victoria en Stalingrado -
2018 - Completo (HD)
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Desfile militar ruso por el 75° aniversario de la victoria en Stalingrado -...
En Volvogrado (nombre que se le dió a la ciudad de Stalingrado luego de los
cambios introducidos por Jruschev). ... | |
STALINGRAD THE TURNING POINT IN WORLD WAR II BY MAO ZEDONG
THE TURNING POINT IN WORLD WAR II
October 12, 1942
[This editorial was written by Comrade Mao Tse-tung for the LiberationDaily..]
The Battle of Stalingrad hasbeen compared by the British and American press to
the Battle of Verdun, andthe "Red Verdun" is now famous all over the world.
This comparison is notaltogether appropriate.
The Battle of Stalingrad isdifferent in nature from the Battle of Verdun in
World War I.
But they have this in common--now, as then, many people are misled by the
German offensive into thinking thatGermany can still win the war.
In 1916 the German forceslaunched several attacks on the French fortress of
Verdun, two years beforeWorld War I ended in the winter of 1918.
The commander-in-chief at Verdunwas the German Crown Prince and the forces
thrown into the battle were thecream of the German army.
The battle was of decisivesignificance. After the ferocious German assaults
failed, the entireGerman-Austrian-Turkish-Bulgarian bloc had no future, and
from then on itsdifficulties mounted, it was deserted by its followers, it
disintegrated, andfinally collapsed.
But at the time, theAnglo-American-French bloc did not grasp this situation,
believing that theGerman army was still very powerful, and they were unaware of
their ownapproaching victory.
Historically, all reactionaryforces on the verge of extinction invariably
conduct a last desperate struggleagainst the revolutionary forces, and some
revolutionaries are apt to bedeluded for a time by this phenomenon of outward
strength but inner weakness,failing to grasp the essential fact that the enemy
is nearing extinction whilethey themselves are approaching victory.
The rise of the forces offascism and the war of aggression they have been
conducting for some years areprecisely the expression of such a last desperate
struggle; and in this presentwar the attack on Stalingrad is the expression of
the last desperate struggleof fascism itself.
At this turning point inhistory, too, many people in the world anti-fascist
front have been deluded bythe ferocious appearance of fascism and have failed
to discern its essence.
For forty-eight days there ragedan unprecedentedly bitter battle, unparalleled
in the history of mankind--fromAugust 23, when the entire German force crossed
the bend of the River Don andbegan the all-out attack on Stalingrad, through
September 15, when some Germanunits broke into the industrial district in the
northwestern section of thecity, and right up to October 9, when the Soviet
Information Bureau announcedthat the Red Army had breached the German line of
encirclement in thatdistrict.
Ultimately this battle was wonby the Soviet forces. During those forty-eight
days, the news of each setbackor triumph from that city gripped the hearts of
countless millions of people,now bringing them anxiety, now stirring them to
This battle is not only theturning point of the Soviet-German war, or even of
the present anti-fascistworld war, it is the turning point in the history of
Throughout these forty-eightdays, the people of the world watched Stalingrad
with even greater concern thanthey watched Moscow last October.
Until his victory on the westernfront, Hitler seems to have been cautious. When
he attacked Poland, when heattacked Norway, when he attacked Holland, Belgium,
and France, and when heattacked the Balkans, he concentrated all his strength
on one objective at atime, not daring to disperse his attention.. After his
victory on the westernfront, he became dizzy with success and attempted to
defeat the Soviet Union inthree months.
He launched an offensive againstthis huge and powerful socialist country along
the whole front stretching fromMurmansk in the north to the Crimea in the
south, and in so doing dispersed hisforces. The failure of his Moscow campaign
last October marked the end of thefirst stage of the Soviet-German war, and
Hitler's first strategic plan failed.
The Red Army halted the Germanoffensive last year and launched a
counteroffensive on all fronts in thewinter, which constituted the second stage
of the Soviet-German war, withHitler turning to retreat and the defensive.
In this period, after dismissingBrauchitsch, his commander-in-chief, and taking
over the command himself, hedecided to abandon the plan for an all-out
offensive, combed Europe for allavailable forces and prepared a final offensive
which, though limited to thesouthern front, would, he imagined, strike at the
vitals of the Soviet Union.
Because it was in the nature ofa final offensive on which the fate of fascism
hung, Hitler concentrated thegreatest possible forces and even moved in part of
his aircraft and tanks fromthe North African battle front. With the German
attack on Kerch and Sevastopolin May this year, the war entered its third
Massing an army of over1,500,000, which was supported by the bulk of his air
and tank forces, Hitlerlaunched an offensive of unprecedented fury on
Stalingrad and the Caucasus.
He endeavoured to capture thesetwo objectives at great speed for the twofold
purpose of cutting the Volga andseizing Baku, intending subsequently to drive
against Moscow to the north andbreak through to the Persian Gulf in the south;
at the same time he directedthe Japanese fascists to mass their troops in
Manchuria in preparation for anattack on Siberia after the fall of Stalingrad.
Hitler vainly hoped to weakenthe Soviet Union to such an extent that he would
be able to release the mainforces of the German army from the Soviet theatre of
war for dealing with anAnglo-American attack on the western front, and for
seizing the resources ofthe Near East and effecting a junction with the
Japanese; at the same time thiswould allow the main forces of the Japanese to
be released from the north and,with their rear secure, to move west against
China and south against Britainand the United States.
That was how Hitler reckoned onwinning victory for the fascist camp. But how
did things turn out in thisstage?
Hitler came up against theSoviet tactics which sealed his fate.
The Soviet Union adopted thepolicy of first luring the enemy in deep and then
putting up a stubbornresistance.
In five months of fighting theGerman army has failed either to penetrate to the
Caucasian oil-fields or toseize Stalingrad, so that Hitler has been forced to
halt his troops before highmountains and outside an impregnable city, unable to
advance and unable toretreat, suffering immense losses and getting into an
October is already here andwinter is approaching; soon the third stage of the
war will end and the fourthstage will begin.
Not one of Hitler's strategicplans of attack against the Soviet Union has
In this period, bearing in mindhis failure in the summer of last year when his
forces were divided, Hitlerconcentrated his strength on the southern front.
But as he still wanted toachieve the twofold purpose of cutting the Volga in
the east and seizing theCaucasus in the south at a single stroke, he again
divided his forces.
He did not recognize that hisstrength did not match his ambitions, and he is
now doomed--"when thecarrying pole is not secured at both ends, the loads slip
As for the Soviet Union, themore she fights the stronger she grows.
Stalin's brilliant strategicdirection has completely gained the initiative and
is everywhere drawing Hitlertowards destruction.
The fourth stage of the war,beginning this winter, will mark the approach of
Comparing Hitler's position inthe first and third stages of the war, we can see
that he is on the thresholdof final defeat. Both at Stalingrad and in the
Caucasus the Red Army has now infact stopped the German offensive; Hitler is
now nearing exhaustion, havingfailed in his attacks on Stalingrad and the
The forces which he managed toassemble throughout the winter, from last
December to May of this year, havealready been used up. In less than a month
winter will set in on theSoviet-German front, and Hitler will have to turn
hastily to the defensive. Thewhole belt west and south of the Don is his most
vulnerable area, and the RedArmy will go over to the counter-offensive there.
This winter, goaded on by thefear of his impending doom, Hitler will once again
reorganize his forces.
To meet the dangers on both theeastern and western fronts, he may perhaps be
able to scrape together theremnants of his forces, equip them and form them
into a few new divisions and,in addition, he will turn for help to his three
fascist partners, Italy,Rumania and Hungary, and extort some more cannon-fodder
However, he will have to facethe enormous losses of a winter campaign in the
east and be ready to deal withthe second front in the west, while Italy,
Rumania and Hungary, becomingpessimistic as they see that it is all up with
Hitler, will increasingly fallaway from him.
In short, after October 9 thereis only one road open to Hitler, the road to
The Red Army's defence ofStalingrad in these forty-eight days has a certain
similarity to the defence ofMoscow last year. That is to say, Hitler's plan for
this year has been foiledjust as was his plan for last year.
The difference, however, isthat, although the Soviet people followed up their
defence of Moscow with awinter counter-offensive, they had yet to face the
summer offensive of the Germanarmy this year, partly because Germany and her
European accomplices still hadsome fight left in them and partly because
Britain and the United Statesdelayed the opening of the second front.
But now, following the battlefor the defence of Stalingrad, the situation will
be totally different fromthat of last year.
On the one hand, the SovietUnion will launch a second winter counteroffensive
on a vast scale, Britain andthe United States will no longer be able to delay
the opening of the second front(though the exact date cannot yet be foretold),
and the people of Europe willbe ready to rise up in response.
On the other hand, Germany andher European accomplices no longer have the
strength to mount large-scaleoffensives, and Hitler will have no alternative
but to change his whole line ofpolicy to the strategic defensive.
Once Hitler is compelled to goover to the strategic defensive, the fate of
fascism is as good as sealed.
>From its birth, a fascist statelike Hitler's builds its political and military
>life on taking the offensive,and once its offensive stops its very life stops
The Battle of Stalingrad willstop the offensive of fascism and is therefore a
decisive battle. It isdecisive for the whole world war.
There are three powerful foesconfronting Hitler, the Soviet Union, Britain and
the United States, and thepeople in the German-occupied territories.
On the eastern front stands theRed Army, firm as a rock, whose
counter-offensives will continue through thewhole of the second winter and
beyond; it is this force which will decide theoutcome of the whole war and the
destiny of mankind.
On the western front, even ifBritain and the United States continue their
policy of looking on and stalling,the second front will eventually be opened,
when the time comes to belabour theslain tiger.
Then there is the internal frontagainst Hitler, the great uprising of the
people which is brewing in Germany,in France and in other parts of Europe; they
will respond with a third frontthe moment the Soviet Union launches an all-out
counter-offensive and the gunsroar on the second front.
Thus, an attack from threefronts will converge on Hitler--such is the great
historical process that willfollow the Battle of Stalingrad.
Napoleon's political life endedat Waterloo, but the decisive turning point was
his defeat at Moscow. Hitlertoday is treading Napoleon's road, and it is the
Battle of Stalingrad that hassealed his doom.
These developments will have adirect impact on the Far East.
The coming year will not bepropitious for Japanese fascism either. As time goes
on its headaches willgrow, until it descends into its grave.
All those who take a pessimisticview of the world situation should change their
point of view.