There are very few pitfalls, none of which I see as real killers.  These 
include:

1.) Closed source compiler: Yes this stands against what we believe, and yes by 
closing their source they're protecting the trade secrets of their 
architecture.  It also could be more difficult to debug, although that's highly 
unlikely, they have the idb (intel debugger) which works very much like gdb.

2.) Linking issues: So far it's pretty versatile, but it doesn't always 
cooperate with gcc compiled apps.  It may be a good strategy to make the 
troublesome apps which won't compile with ICC compile with ICC.

Pro's:

1.) Bloody fast machine code.  Intel obfuscates their architecture but they 
give back to the community as much as possible to make their hardware 
marketable toward the open source sysadmin, developer, etc etc.  Their drivers 
are open and they develop for the kernel constantly.  This cooperation leads me 
to believe that they would assist a team of developers in making 100% icc 
compatible code.

2.) Bloody fast compilation time.  In my experience the compiler works much 
faster even with heavy optimization.

3.) Takes full advantage of SSE enabled hardware.  SIMD instructions are quite 
useful, code is extremely vectorized.

4.) will project gentoo toward the power user more, helps the gentoo image, and 
overall will make linux a more professional operating system (and a quite 
competitive alternative to something like a SPARC+Solaris configuration).  This 
would also make cluster farms and science application more respectful toward 
the gentoo community.  The academic and research world already uses ICC to 
compile their apps for the sake of speed.  The interprocedural optimizations 
for both the fortran and c/c++ compilers make it a must.

5.) It's free, albeit a commercial product.  As gentoo is entirely non-profit, 
there is no restriction when it comes to licensing.  The binaries won't be sold 
for the intel-compiled livecd, and the compiler itself with a fetch restriction 
allows the user to legally register for their free non-commercial license.  
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