- use "tc" and the QoS-Kernel-Features.

I don't mind recompiling the kernel and would rather use a generic tool useful for system administration later down the road. Looks like tc is the way to go.

It gives you a lot of options. It's in the iproute2-package. It has a
little high learning curve, but you can do really interesting things and
even simulate higher latencies. For a good introduction see the Linux
Advanced Routing and Traffic Control HowTo, http://lartc.org
You can use netfilter here, too, to mark the relevant packets.

Thanks for your help guys, I'm still labouring through lartc documentation which isn't very easy to percieve. Eventually I came up with a simple tc config which works for me now but the actual transfer rates are 10 times higher than I would expect:

tc qdisc add dev lo root handle 1: htb r2q 1
tc class add dev lo parent 1: classid 1:10 htb rate 56kbit ceil 56kbit
tc filter add dev lo protocol ip parent 1: prio 1 handle 10 fw flowid 1:10

When I slash the rate to 6kbit I get ~6kbps throughput which is about right for 
I'm probably still missing something obvious about the buckets.

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